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Information usage is a key aspect of creative cognition and has been shown to influence design outcomes. The goal of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of student designers while validating a previously developed “Typology of Design Information” framework. Participants were asked to use and evaluate pieces of information during the idea generation process. Results show a discrepancy between the information that participants naturally sought out and their perceived utility (helpfulness) of the information. However, individually significant relationships between perceived utility and behavior were found with features generated by participants, suggesting that even though participants' perception of the utility of information pieces and their actual behavior are not related, both constructs have an identifiable influence on design outcomes. This study advances the Typology of Design Information framework by empirically exploring the link between the types of information used by novice designers and the ideas generated, and it illustrates that participants employ complex cognitive behavior when engaging with design information to generate novel ideas.
Studies with healthy participants and patients with respiratory diseases suggest a relation between respiration and mood. The aim of the present analyses was to investigate whether emotionally challenged remitted depressed participants show higher respiration pattern variability (RPV) and whether this is related to mood, clinical outcome and increased default mode network connectivity.
To challenge participants, sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in individuals with remitted depression [recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD), n = 30] and matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 30) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Respiration was measured by means of a built-in respiration belt. Additionally, questionnaires, a daily life assessment of mood and a 3 years follow-up were applied. For replication, we analysed RPV in an independent sample of 53 rMDD who underwent the same fMRI paradigm.
During sad mood, rMDD compared with HC showed greater RPV, with higher variability in pause duration and respiration frequency and lower expiration to inspiration ratio. Higher RPV was related to lower daily life mood and predicted higher depression scores as well as relapses during a 3-year follow-up period. Furthermore, in rMDD compared with HC higher main respiration frequency exhibited a more positive association with connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus.
The results suggest a relation between RPV, mood and depression on the behavioural and neural level. Based on our findings, we propose interventions focusing on respiration to be a promising additional tool in the treatment of depression.
Adoption of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) into the pre-college classroom is an ideal strategy for addressing Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), specifically the Science and Engineering Practices. MSE offers core science and engineering topics that can be incorporated into existing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematic (STEM) curricula through teaching modules. Using MSE as a teaching vehicle, the Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP) conducted a series of small-scale studies of its teacher professional development workshops and a student summer program, along with related teaching modules, in an effort to measure the contribution MSE has on students and K-12 STEM educators. Based on participant survey feedback, CRISP found improvement in students’ MSE knowledge, interests, and career goals. For teachers, in addition to improving their MSE knowledge, they also increased their comfort and confidence in teaching MSE concepts in their classroom. These results provide evidence for the use of MSE modules as productive teaching tools for NGSS Science and Engineering Practices, as well as producing workforce-competitive STEM students.
Telomere length is widely considered as a marker of biological aging. Clinical studies have reported associations between reduced telomere length and hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare telomere length in hypertensive and normotensive mice at pre-disease and established disease time points to determine whether telomere length differs between the strains before and after the onset of disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from kidney and heart tissues of 4-, 12-, and 20-week-old male hypertensive (BPH/2J) and normotensive (BPN/3J) mice. Relative telomere length (T/S) was measured using quantitative PCR. Age was inversely correlated with telomere length in both strains. In 4-week-old pre-hypertensive animals, no difference in T/S was observed between BPH/2J and BPN/3J animals in kidney or heart tissue (kidney p = 0.14, heart p = 0.06). Once the animals had established disease, at 12 and 20 weeks, BPH/2J mice had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to their age-matched controls in both kidney (12 weeks p < 0.001 and 20 weeks p = 0.004) and heart tissues (12 weeks p < 0.001 and 20 weeks p < 0.001). This is the first study to show that differences in telomere lengths between BPH/2J and BPN/3J mice occur after the development of hypertension and do not cause hypertension in the BPH/2J mice.
Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs traditionally function as a recruitment vehicle to encourage students to pursue further studies in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) and as an opportunity for STEM majors to delve deeper into their chosen fields of study. Based on a critical examination of REU student feedback, evaluators at CRISP (Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena) have found that in addition to these conventional benefits of research-based experiences, the value of interdisciplinary skill development is integral to the REU experience and these contributions may warrant a more formal evaluative definition. Using the emerging 21st Century Skills Framework, CRISP has begun conducting a series of small-scale studies in an effort to define the contribution of student research experiences in cross-disciplinary skill development and the positive effects that exposure to real-world science practices have on refinement of career decisions and vocational success. Using Likert-type survey methods, this study directly examines current and former REU students’ perceptions of the importance of interdisciplinary 21st century skills such as creativity, collaboration, communication, information literacy, and problem-solving in their REU experience and their perceived value of these skills in their future and/or current careers. Through better understanding the role these “soft skills” play in student research experiences, CRISP hopes to maximize these interdisciplinary benefits within its REU program to best prepare students for the complex demands of the 21st century workplace.
According to the World Health Organization guidelines, field tests, in the context of a bid for the supply of alcohol-based hand rubs, should take into account climatic region, test period, products already in use, and type of use (hygienic or surgical) when assessing tolerance. This laborious method is often contested.
To conduct a post hoc analysis of the data of a large bid, including 5 factors, to validate the relevance of their inclusion.
For the purposes of the bid, products were compared in terms of the 4 World Health Organization tolerance criteria (appearance, intactness, moisture content, sensation) during product testing and were separated into groups on the basis of the studied factors. The post hoc analysis method included (1) comparison of the mean before-and-after difference based on the self-evaluation of the skin with the 4 World Health Organization tolerance criteria, between climatic regions, periods, products in use, test product, and the type of use; (2) generalized linear models, taking into account all studied factors.
The analysis included data for 1,925 pairs of professionals. The means of the differences observed were independently and significantly associated with the test period (P<.001), the hygienic or surgical use (P=.010 to .041, not significant for appearance), the product already in use (significant for appearance P=.021), and the test product (P<.001). The association with climatic region was found to be significant only in the nonadjusted analysis.
The type of use, the test period, and the product in use should be taken into account when designing field tests of alcohol-based hand rubs.
In recent years, the works by the German-Jewish poet Gertrud Kolmar (1894–1943) have found renewed interest among scholars. Raised in the upper middle class of Berlin and fully acculturated in the German cultural heritage, Gertrud Kolmar was persecuted, under the pressure of the National Socialist regime, because of her Jewish roots. Unlike many of her contemporaries, she chose to remain in Nazi Berlin and continued to write until her death in Auschwitz in 1943. Even though her published work spanned the innovative period between 1917 and 1937, Kolmar's poetic oeuvre from the years 1927 to 1937 has received the most attention. Though neglected by scholars, Kolmar's earlier work is fascinating precisely because it gives prescient insight into her poetic adaptations of questions concerning place, power, and gender at the end of the First World War.
My essay investigates an early poem in Kolmar's work: “Die Aztekin” (The Aztec Woman), written around 1920 and published in Früher Zyklus I. In memoriam 1918. Kolmar's “Aztekin” illustrates a testing ground for colonial fantasies and gendered mappings in its imaginary space of a poetic “Aztec empire.” The poem responds not only to preestablished writings on gendered conquests in the New World but also, more specifically, rewrites them in the perceived context of an imperial apocalypse in and after 1918, between megalomaniacal power struggles and the collapse of the Wilhelmine empire.
Sophie von La Roche's America novel, Erscheinungen am See Oneida (Phenomena at Lake Oneida, 1798), centers on a French aristocratic couple from Flanders who go to live on a remote island in upstate New York. Carl and Emilie von Wattines have fled to the United States from the French revolutionary Terror, in which several of their relatives lost their lives. On advice from a Quaker friend in Philadelphia, they find their way to an island in Oneida Lake. There they live without contact with other Europeans for four years, producing two children and making a modest life for themselves, before moving to a new town founded by Dutch and German settlers on the lakeshore. A narrator traveling in the region pieces their story together from what he learns from them and their friends. At the crux of the tale is how the Wattineses, Crusoe-like, manage to survive in their isolation.
Three factors play a role. First, in spite of being aristocrats, they possess a bourgeois ethic, demonstrating qualities like modesty, hard work, and resourcefulness that help them to thrive. Second, they have brought a whole library of reference books with them, including the entire Encyclopédie and Buffon's Histoire naturelle, to which they frequently refer for how-to information. Finally and most interestingly, Emilie Wattines decides to reach out and make contact with the local indigenous people, the Oneidas, when she is about to give birth.
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the unification of Germany in 1990 allowed East Germans to finally travel freely to western countries. This new freedom to travel to the West not only impacted the worldview of many former GDR citizens, but also found its way into the writings of East German authors throughout the 1990s and into the present. In her study on contemporary German literature around the turn of the twenty-first century, the literary critic Christine Cosentino examines several tendencies by which contemporary German authors deal with America in their texts. One tendency she describes is “die Reise in die USA als Topos für die Suche nach Identität, die den politischen Hintergrund weitgehend ausspart” (the journey to the USA as a symbol for the search for identity, which largely leaves out the political background). This tendency—finding one's identity by traveling to America—is noticeable in literature by East German authors from the 1990s, one of whom is Angela Krauß. In many of her works, particularly in her novels Die Überfliegerin (1995) and Milliarden neuer Sterne (1999), travel to America is a catalyst for the narrator experiencing her own identity in relation to past experiences, specifically her life in East German society. The exploration of the new world manifests itself in these texts as a discovery of the narrator's inner self.
November 5, 1853. Ida Pfeiffer, an Austrian traveler, is on her way to a village north of Crescent City in California, and the main purpose of her visit to this region is, as she claims, to see Indians. What she finds instead are ethnically hybrid Native Americans:
Nichts erschien mir komischer als die sonderbaren Anzüge, denn auch hier lasen sie alle von den Weißen weggeworfenen Kleidungsstücke auf. So sah ich einen Indianer, welcher ein Beinkleid, eine sehr schadhafte Mantille und einen zerknitterten Frauenhut trug. Ein anderer hatte weiter nichts als einen Frack an, den er nach eigenem Geschmacke auf der Rückseite ganz mit Glasperlen benäht hatte. Ein dritter trug wieder nur eine Weste, dazu einen Männerhut, in welchen er oben ein Loch geschnitten und viele Vogelfedern aufgesteckt hatte. Ebenso geschmackvoll waren die Weiber gekleidet.
[Nothing seemed more comical to me than their strange outfits, for here too they collected all the garments discarded by the whites. I saw an Indian wearing a pair of breeches, a very ragged mantilla, and a crumpled lady's hat. Another one wore nothing but a frock coat, the back of which he had adorned with glass beads according to his own taste. A third one wore only a waistcoat and a man's hat to go with it. On its top he had cut a hole and stuck many feathers into it. The women were dressed in equally good taste.]