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Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola is a widely grown crop across western Canada and has quickly become a prolific volunteer weed. Glyphosate-resistant soybean is rapidly gaining acreage in western Canada. Thus, there is a need to evaluate herbicide options to manage volunteer GR canola in GR soybean crops. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficacy of various PRE and POST herbicides applied sequentially to volunteer GR canola and to evaluate soybean injury caused by these herbicides. Trials were conducted across Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2014 and 2015. All treatments provided a range of suppression (>70%) to control (>80%) of volunteer canola. All treatments with the exception of the glyphosate-treated control reduced aboveground canola biomass by an average of 96%. As well, canola seed contamination was reduced from 36% to less than 5% when a PRE and POST herbicide were both used. Moreover, all combinations of herbicides used had excellent crop safety (<10%). All PRE and POST herbicide combinations provided better control of volunteer canola compared with the glyphosate-only control, but tribenuron followed by bentazon and tribenuron followed by imazamox plus bentazon provided solutions that were low cost, currently available (registered in western Canada), and had the potential to minimize development of herbicide resistance in other weeds.
In recent years, soybean acreage has increased significantly in western Canada. One of the challenges associated with growing soybean in western Canada is the control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola, because most soybean cultivars are also glyphosate resistant. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of soybean seeding rate and planting date on competition with volunteer canola. We also attempted to determine how high seeding rate could be raised while still being economically feasible for producers. Soybean was seeded at five different seeding rates (targeted 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) and three planting dates (targeted mid-May, late May, and early June) at four sites across western Canada in 2014 and 2015. Soybean yield consistently increased with higher seeding rates, whereas volunteer canola biomass decreased. Planting date generally produced variable results across site-years. An economic analysis determined that the optimal rate was 40 to 60 plants m−2, depending on market price, and the optimal planting date range was from May 20 to June 1.
An early evaluation of a product along with the consideration of life phase specific actor(s) and environment(s) can help greatly to gain an understanding of the product's behaviour and interactions. Virtual Reality (VR) can help designers to examine later life situations of a product by means of use case scenarios. However, preparing a VR-scene is still a time-consuming and cumbersome task. A model based approach that uses behaviour models of SysML to describe a VR-scene can reduce the preparation efforts. Such an approach is helpful if it allows the reuse of already described VR-scenes or their contents. This paper talks about the reusability of SysML behaviour models that constitute a VR-scene. This reusability can only be achieved by the generic definition of model interfaces. Therefore, a new modelling approach is presented to facilitate the reuse of SysML behaviour models to form different use cases of a product in VR. This approach also talks about the interface definitions and the management of variants of SysML models. The presented approach is elaborated by an example model that contains variants and uses instances to build different use cases.
The Aesthetic Uncanny, or: Why Children Need Stories
SIGMUND FREUD OPENED his famous essay “Das Unheimliche” (“The Uncanny”) with the gesture of acknowledging his unease about the quasi-uncanny intrusion he was about to commit by venturing into a domain outside the field of his psychoanalytical expertise: “the subject of aesthetics.” He committed this transgression nonetheless and featured E. T. A. Hoffmann's story of Der Sandmann (The Sandman) as his primary case study to examine a series of motifs that have been labeled as “uncanny” in literature. However, at the end of his excursion into what was foreign territory to him, Freud redrew the strict line of demarcation between a psychoanalytic and aesthetic inquiry of the uncanny:
We might say that these preliminary results have satisfied psycho-analytic interest in the problem of the uncanny, and that what remains probably calls for an aesthetic enquiry. But that would be to open the door to doubts about what exactly is the value of our general contention that the uncanny proceeds from something familiar which has been repressed. (246)
This is a surprising, if not self-contradictory conclusion of the essay, because Freud took both the examples that supported as well as those that contradicted his theory from the realm of literature. By admitting to suppressing his rising doubts about the value of his results and closing the door to an aesthetic inquiry, he intentionally exposed his essay to the possibility of a haunting return—that of his repressed doubts in the form of future criticism. This article aims to reopen the door that Freud closed and to challenge, or at least complement, his psychoanalytical approach with an aesthetic inquiry.
What kind of “doubts” Freud had in mind becomes evident when we consult the rivaling theory of Ernst Jentsch from 1906, who defined the uncanny as “intellectual” or “psychical uncertain[ty]” for distinguishing between the real and imagined, and as “doubt as to whether an apparently living being is animate and, conversely, doubt as to whether a lifeless object may not in fact be animate.”
The low-frequency conductivity of aqueous kaolinite suspensions has been measured as a function of volume fraction and concentration of KCl, K2SO4 and BaCl2, respectively. These measurements were interpreted with a theoretical model accounting for surface conductivity and particle shape. For the first time, an internally consistent data set was established by measuring all parameters necessary to solve the relevant equations. The simultaneous availability of surface conductivity, surface charge density and diffuse layer charge density permitted the estimation of counterion mobilities in the stagnant layer and a consistency check for the evaluation procedure of the conductivity experiments. In agreement with current literature results, monovalent counterions were found to have a Stern layer mobility similar to their bulk mobility, whereas the mobility of divalent counterions in this layer is reduced by a factor of ∼2.
According to Carl von Clausewitz's famous dictum, war is the continuation of politics by other means. Kleist's Berliner Abendblätter (BA), I argue, can be characterized similarly as the continuation of war by means of the printing press, which allows for the wide distribution of concealed, politically explosive messages in the medium of ambiguous news reports and anecdotes instead of weapons. Recent studies have explored how Kleist's poetry reflects the profound practical and theoretical transformations of warfare during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and the guerilla counter-insurgences. This article aims to complement these interpretations by showing how the geopolitical changes and subsequent societal challenges of this revolutionary and counterrevolutionary age have informed the editorial strategy and journalistic tactics of the BA —not just to represent and reflect them, but to mobilize the Prussian/German people and to wage war against Napoleon in the virtual public sphere created by this medium.
War is the father of all in-depth thinking about the politics of space, and the totality of war in the Napoleonic era triggered a mobilization of space and dynamization of the status quo that urged political leaders and military strategists to rethink the static, stratified organization of their state and army. Anders Engberg-Pedersen's recent study delineates the series of spatial transformations that originated from the National Convention's decree of national conscription and military mass-mobilization in 1793, the so-called levée en masse. The withdrawal of the distinctions between regular soldiers and civil fighters as well as between the battlefield and the hinterland resulted in an expansion of warfare to potentially any terrain and a general increase of its complexity. In his treatise On War, Clausewitz introduced the concept “friction” as an integrative category of the many new uncertainties and imponderabilities which have turned modern battles into events of chance, and tactics into a science of observing and exploiting the opportunities of the moment for short-term gains and advances. Accordingly, the overall strategic planning of war has become predominantly an issue of intelligence assessments and probability calculations (see Engberg-Pedersen 37–68).
Some time ago, we reported the synthesis of bixbyite-type V2O3, a new metastable polymorph of vanadium sesquioxide. Since, a number of investigations followed, dealing with different aspects like electronic and magnetic properties of the material, the deviation from ideal stoichiometry or the preparation of nanocrystals as oxygen storage material. However, most of the physical properties were only evaluated on a theoretical basis. Here, we report the lattice dynamics and physical properties of bixbyite-type V2O3 bulk material, which we acquired from physical property measurements and neutron diffraction experiments over a wide temperature range. Besides attributing different possible orientations of the magnetic moments for V1 and V2 to the identified antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state with a Néel temperature of 38.1(5) K, we use a first order Grüneisen approximation to determine lattice-dependent parameters for the relatively stiff cubic lattice, and, amongst others identify the Debye temperature to be as low as 350 ± 65 K.
Patients with bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis have unphysiologically high superior caval vein pressure as it equals pulmonary artery pressure. Elevated superior caval vein pressure may cause communicating hydrocephalus and macrocephaly. This study analysed whether there exists an association between head circumference and superior caval vein pressure in patients with single ventricle physiology.
We carried out a retrospective analysis of infants undergoing Fontan completion at our institution from 2007 to 2013. Superior caval vein pressures were measured during routine catheterisation before bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and Fontan completion as well as head circumference, adjusted to longitudinal age-dependent percentiles.
We included 74 infants in our study. Median ages at bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and Fontan were 4.8 (1.6–12) and 27.9 (7–40.6) months, respectively. Head circumference showed significant growth from bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis until Fontan completion (7th (0–100th) versus 20th (0–100th) percentile). There was no correlation between superior caval vein pressure and head circumference before Fontan (R2=0.001). Children with lower differences in superior caval vein pressures between pre-bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and pre-Fontan catheterisations showed increased growth of head circumference (R2=0.19).
Patients with moderately elevated superior caval vein pressure associated with single ventricle physiology did not have a tendency to develop macrocephaly. There is no correlation between superior caval vein pressure before Fontan and head circumference, but between bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and Fontan head circumference increases significantly. This may be explained by catch-up growth of head circumference in patients with more favourable haemodynamics and concomitant venous pressures in the lower range. Further studies with focus on high superior caval vein pressures are needed to exclude or prove a correlation.
The influence of threading dislocations (TDs) on the dry thermal oxidation of c-plane gallium nitride (GaN) is investigated for oxidation temperatures above 800°C. The transformation of GaN to gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is preferably found at TDs and grain boundaries, showing enhanced vertical oxidation, compared to defect free surface sites. Therefore, the increase in surface roughness commonly obtained upon oxidation is explained by an inhomogeneous chemical reactivity associated with those crystal defects. Additionally, annealing in an N2 atmosphere showed that also decomposition is favored at such chemically reactive spots. Comparison between decomposition and oxidation suggests that at temperatures above 950°C, the Ga2O3 formation is supported by the decomposition of GaN and subsequent oxidation of the metallic gallium.
The reliability of InAlGaN multiple quantum well LEDs emitting around 308 nm has been investigated. The UV-B LEDs were stressed at constant current and current density, while the heat sink temperature was varied between 15°C and 80°C. The results reveal two different modes of the decrease of the optical power during aging. First, a fast reduction of the optical power within the first 100 h (mode 1) can be observed, followed by a slower degradation for operation times >100 h (mode 2). Mode 1 can be described as an initial degradation activation process which saturates after a certain time, whereas the second degradation mode can be described by a square-root time dependence of the optical power, suggesting a diffusion process to be involved. Both degradation modes are accompanied by changes of the I-V characteristic, particularly the reverse-bias leakage current and the drive voltage. Furthermore, the degradation behavior is strongly influenced by the temperature. Both, the maximum reduction of the optical power and the increase of the leakage current become stronger at higher temperatures.
Distal femur fractures are complex injuries. Their aetiology includes high-energy traumas in young patients, often combined with polytrauma or combined fractures (e.g. dashboard injury), and low-energy traumas usually in elderly patients associated with reduced bone quality.
Check for pain, swelling, deformity, shortening and intra-articular effusion.
Assess the neurovascular status of the leg and soft tissue damage of closed fractures.
In case of diminished or absent pulse the ankle-brachial indices as well as a Doppler should be done early. In doubt, in case of side-to-side difference, or if a value of less than 0.9 occurs, an arteriogram is indicated.
Open fractures: do not open dressings placed on the scene out of the operating room. Information about local wound findings requires a clear medical handover.
Assess local injury severity with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the total severity of injuries with the Injury Severity Score (ISS).
Check for previous surgery, especially total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Be aware of typically associated injuries: calcaneus, proximal tibia fracture, patella fracture, ligament ruptures of the knee (posterior cruciate ligament), femoral neck fracture, femoral head fracture, acetabulum fracture.
The development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is potentially influenced by nutrition. The aim of our study was to assess food and nutrient intakes of children at increased risk of T1D.
Dietary intake of the last 4 weeks was assessed using a diet history interview. The daily nutrient and food intakes were compared with the German Dietary Reference Intakes, the Optimized Mixed Diet recommendations and those of a representative sample of children from the EsKiMo study.
Children included in the analysis participated in the prospective TEENDIAB study.
First-degree relatives of people with T1D (n 268), aged 8–12 years.
The TEENDIAB children consumed 52·0 % of their total energy from carbohydrates, 32·6 % from fat and 14·3 % from protein. Compared with the reference values, their intake was lowest for folate at 61·3 % of the reference, for iodine at 58·1 % and for vitamin D at 8·9 %, and exceeded the reference for vitamin K about 5-fold, for Na about 3·5-fold and for protein about 1·5-fold. Their nutrient intakes were similar to those of a control cohort without increased T1D risk. The consumption of non-desirable food groups (meat products, sweets/snacks) was above the recommendations and the consumption of desirable food groups (fruits, vegetables, carbohydrate-rich foods) was below the recommendations.
The TEENDIAB children had intakes considerably below the recommendations for vitamin D, iodine, folate and plant-based foods, and intakes above for vitamin K, Na, protein, meat products and sweets/snacks. They showed similar dietary patterns to non-risk children.
While the frankfurt edition suggests that Goethe's poems ought to be read in the contexts of carefully crafted ensembles and cycles, it remains common practice to analyze them in distinct isolation. Even in a study as monumental and sophisticated as David Wellbery's The Specular Moment, poems such as “Ganymed” and “Prometheus,” which Goethe regularly placed side by side, are subjected to extensive exegesis without any reflection of their spatial conjunction. Yet Goethe's lyric poetry consists of dynamic poetic processes that surpass the lyric capacity of individual poems. By focusing on the so-called great hymns of the “Geniezeit,” which are commonly regarded as paradigms of the aesthetic autonomy of the individual artwork, this article aims to show how these poems in fact contribute to the realization of a certain poetic idea that transgresses the limits of lyrical expression in single texts. to bring this overall poetic idea to light, Goethe employs the strategy of juxtaposing related poems in the arrangements of certain ensembles, thereby fashioning specific contexts of transmission. I call this strategy “metapoetic” for two reasons: first, because it reveals how the dynamic of the poetic process reaches beyond individual poems; and second, because the hermeneutic reflection of the intertextual relations among the poems of an ensemble generates insight into the “poetologic” of the production process as such.
This collection of articles emerged from a series of panels devoted to Goethe's lyric poetry at the Thirty-first Conference of the German Studies Association in 2010. The organizers, including Regina Sachers, were motivated by the observation that this genre of Goethe's writings has been surprisingly understudied in recent years. on the one hand, scholars have tended to revisit very similar questions raised by a comparatively small number of individual poems; only rarely have new contexts or innovative theoretical approaches been brought into play. On the other hand, David Wellbery's magisterial study The Specular Moment: Goethe's Early Lyric and the Beginnings of Romanticism (1996) has been received with such appreciation that scholars seem to have been discouraged from pursuing new directions in this area of research. Our aim was to bring together a wide variety of established and emerging Goethe scholars and take stock of the current innovative approaches to Goethe's lyric poetry. We are hopeful that the following articles, which (with one exception) have their origin in this panel series, will open up new avenues of research and poetic insight as they examine Goethe's lyric through various discursive lenses and from different theoretical angles.
The first three contributions propose new ways of reading Goethe's early poems that go beyond David Wellbery's methodology and assessments. Edgar Landgraf, meeting David Wellbery on his home turf, makes a strong argument that the discursive formation of Goethe's early poems is better understood if approached with a rigorous application of Luhmann's systems theory.