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Individual organisms on land and in the ocean sequester massive amounts of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Yet the role of ecosystems as a whole in modulating this uptake of carbon is less clear. Here, we study several different mechanisms by which climate change and ecosystems could interact. We show that climate change could cause changes in ecosystems that reduce their capacity to take up carbon, further accelerating climate change. More research on – and better governance of – interactions between climate change and ecosystems is urgently required.
Comparisons of antipsychotics with placebo can be biased by unblinding due to side effects. Therefore, this meta-analysis compared the efficacy of antipsychotics for acute schizophrenia in trials using barbiturates or benzodiazepines as active placebos.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in acute schizophrenia with at least 3 weeks duration and comparing any antipsychotic with barbiturates or benzodiazepines were eligible. ClinicalTrials.gov, CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, WHO-ICTRP as well as previous reviews were searched up to 9 January 2018. Two separate meta-analyses, one for barbiturates and one for benzodiazepines, were conducted using random-effects models. The primary outcome was response to treatment, and mean values of schizophrenia rating scales and dropouts were analyzed as secondary outcomes. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018086263).
Seven barbiturate-RCTs (number of participants n = 1736), and two benzodiazepine-RCTs (n = 76) were included in the analysis. The studies were published between 1960 and 1968 and involved mainly chronically ill patients. More patients on antipsychotics in comparison to barbiturates achieved a ‘good’ response (36.2% v. 16.8%; RR 2.15; 95% CI 1.36–3.41; I2 = 48.9) and ‘any’ response (57.4% v. 27.8%; RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.35–3.18; I2 = 68.2). In a single small trial (n = 60), there was no difference between antipsychotics and benzodiazepines on ‘any’ response (74.7% v. 65%; RR 1.15; 95% CI 0.82–1.62).
Antipsychotic drugs were more efficacious than barbiturates, based on a large sample size. Response ratios were similar to those observed in placebo-controlled trials. The results on benzodiazepines were inconclusive due to the small number of studies and participants.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Cognitive deficits in depressed adults may reflect impaired decision-making. To investigate this possibility, we analyzed data from unmedicated adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and healthy controls as they performed a probabilistic reward task. The Hierarchical Drift Diffusion Model (HDDM) was used to quantify decision-making mechanisms recruited by the task, to determine if any such mechanism was disrupted by depression.
Data came from two samples (Study 1: 258 MDD, 36 controls; Study 2: 23 MDD, 25 controls). On each trial, participants indicated which of two similar stimuli was presented; correct identifications were rewarded. Quantile-probability plots and the HDDM quantified the impact of MDD on response times (RT), speed of evidence accumulation (drift rate), and the width of decision thresholds, among other parameters.
RTs were more positively skewed in depressed v. healthy adults, and the HDDM revealed that drift rates were reduced—and decision thresholds were wider—in the MDD groups. This pattern suggests that depressed adults accumulated the evidence needed to make decisions more slowly than controls did.
Depressed adults responded slower than controls in both studies, and poorer performance led the MDD group to receive fewer rewards than controls in Study 1. These results did not reflect a sensorimotor deficit but were instead due to sluggish evidence accumulation. Thus, slowed decision-making—not slowed perception or response execution—caused the performance deficit in MDD. If these results generalize to other tasks, they may help explain the broad cognitive deficits seen in depression.
With the aim to characterize the near-wall flow structures and their interaction with large-scale motions in the log-law region, time-resolved planar and volumetric flow field measurements were performed in the near-wall and log-law region of an adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer following a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at a friction Reynolds number
. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of the measurements, it was possible to resolve and identify uniform-momentum zones in the region
and to relate them with well known coherent flow motions near the wall. The space–time results confirm that the turbulent superstructures have a strong impact even on the very near-wall flow motion and also their alternating appearance in time and intensity could be quantified over long time sequences. Using the time record of the velocity field, rare localized separation events appearing in the viscous sublayer were also analysed. By means of volumetric particle tracking velocimetry their three-dimensional topology and dynamics could be resolved. Based on the results, a conceptual model was deduced that explains their rare occurrence, topology and dynamics by means of a complex interaction process between low-momentum turbulent superstructures, near-wall low-speed streaks and tilted longitudinal and spanwise vortices located in the near-wall region.
FONTANE's LAST NOVEL, Der Stechlin (The Stechlin, 1898), has as its central idea “den großen Zusammenhang der Dinge” (17:320), translated by William Zwiebel as “the great interrelatedness of things.” The semantics of the German “Zusammenhang,” however, also allows for an understanding of the term as “interconnectedness” or “interconnectiveness.” Indeed Der Stechlin, in depicting interrelations, deals with the connections among the various elements and dimensions of the world: the small and great, near and far, low and high, old and new, nature and society or technology. All this is embodied by the central symbol of Lake Stechlin and its subterranean communications with the world's volcanoes. The natural lake finds its complement in the social sphere in telegraphic networks, which by the end of the nineteenth century connected the world and whose communications are, likewise, invisible transmissions. Telegraphy's medium, “elektrische[r] Strom” (17:29; electric current, Z, 18), connects it metaphorically back to the realm of nature and Fontane's central imagery of water (the medium of connectivity and fluidity). The telegraphic principle also allows Fontane to establish meaningful connections between seemingly distant or otherwise unconnected points in the novel.
Telegraphy, as a modern technology, represents interconnectedness as a quality and product of industrialized society, while the lake and the flow of water embody it in nature. Countess Melusine von Barby is the figure in the novel associated most closely with the lake and nature. While she is a lady of society, her first name, Melusine, is that of the fairy-tale water sprite. She is thus connected to the lake and the imagery of water that pervades the narrative. Through her dual affiliation (both to nature via the lake and water and to society), she represents the principle of interconnectedness itself. And as a sophisticated lady, intelligent, imaginative, sensitive, and urbane, she figures in the novel as a partial alter-ego to the author, as an “allegory of the esthetic mindset,” and, arguably, as an embodiment of Fontane's art and its own art of connecting. It is appropriate, then, that Fontane lets her proclaim the novel's central message: the importance of recalling the great interrelatedness of things (17:320).
Three subspecies of Island Thrush Turdus poliocephalus were historically found in New Caledonia. All these subspecies were considered extinct until 1978, when T. p. xanthopus was rediscovered on two small islands, Néba (∼ 3.5 km2) and Yandé (∼ 13 km2). On Néba, we estimated the population at 44–58 individuals. This Island Thrush population is dependent on the coastal forest, the richest habitat for invertebrates. However, the coastal forest habitat has been degraded in quality and extent. The Island Thrush forages in the litter by removing leaves with its bill. Fruits (diameter < 10 mm), picked from trees and swallowed whole, are also a significant component of its diet. Néba and Yandé are currently free of two nest predator species, the black rat Rattus rattus and the New Caledonian Crow Corvus moneduloides. On Néba, a low breeding success rate of 15.4% was found. To ensure conservation of these relict thrush populations, two actions at least should be implemented: setting up a biosecurity programme to keep islands free of black rats and increasing the area of coastal forest. The latter could be done by cutting down coconut trees in abandoned groves and planting tree species used by the Island Thrush to provide shade, fruits, good leaf litter, and nest support.
The present paper presents a fundamentally novel approach to model individual differences of persons with the same biologically heterogeneous mental disorder. Unlike prevalent case-control analyses, that assume a clear distinction between patient and control groups and thereby introducing the concept of an ‘average patient’, we describe each patient's biology individually, gaining insights into the different facets that characterize persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Using a normative modeling approach, we mapped inter-individual differences in reference to normative structural brain changes across the lifespan to examine the degree to which case-control analyses disguise differences between individuals.
At the level of the individual, deviations from the normative model were frequent in persistent ADHD. However, the overlap of more than 2% between participants with ADHD was only observed in few brain loci. On average, participants with ADHD showed significantly reduced gray matter in the cerebellum and hippocampus compared to healthy individuals. While the case-control differences were in line with the literature on ADHD, individuals with ADHD only marginally reflected these group differences.
Case-control comparisons, disguise inter-individual differences in brain biology in individuals with persistent ADHD. The present results show that the ‘average ADHD patient’ has limited informative value, providing the first evidence for the necessity to explore different biological facets of ADHD at the level of the individual and practical means to achieve this end.
An assemblage of Cambrian Series 2, Stages 3–4, conchiferan mollusks from the Shackleton Limestone, Transantarctic Mountains, East Antarctica, is formally described and illustrated. The fauna includes one bivalve, one macromollusk, and 10 micromollusks, including the first description of the species Xinjispira simplex Zhou and Xiao, 1984 outside North China. The new fauna shows some similarity to previously described micromollusks from lower Cambrian glacial erratics from the Antarctic Peninsula. The fauna, mainly composed of steinkerns, is relatively low diversity, but the presence of diagnostic taxa, including helcionelloid Davidonia rostrata (Zhou and Xiao, 1984), bivalve Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980, cambroclavid Cambroclavus absonus Conway Morris in Bengtson et al., 1990, and bradoriid Spinospitella coronata Skovsted et al., 2006, as well as the botsfordiid brachiopod Schizopholis yorkensis (Ushatinskaya and Holmer in Gravestock et al., 2001), in the overlying Holyoake Formation correlates the succession to the Dailyatia odyssei Zone (Cambrian Stages 3–4) in South Australia.
Though compact polarimetric approaches have been developed and applied in space and geo researching systems they have not been taken into consideration in automotive applications, yet. A sensor system has been designed to conduct polarimetric measurements in the 77 GHz frequency band, which is permitted for automotive usage. This system is able to transceive linearly as well as circularly polarized electromagnetic continuous waves. Depending on the case of application, the frequency output can be set statically or modulated over time within adjustable parameters. Hence, a variety of compact polarimetric modes can be performed and compared with full polarimetric approaches. Two compact polarimetric modes, dual-circular polarimetric mode, and circular-transmit-linear-receive, will be introduced and applied in this contribution. Their operability in this frequency range will be investigated after the microstrip antennas as well as the beam focusing dielectrical lense are characterized. Finally, results of a realistical measurement set-up will confirm the practicability of compact polarimetric approaches for double bounce recognition.
Enzymes have recently attracted increasing attention in material research based on their capacity to catalyze the conversion of polymer-bound moieties for synthesizing polymer networks, particularly bulk hydrogels. In this study, the surface immobilization of a relevant enzyme, mushroom tyrosinase, should be explored using glass as model surface. In a first step, the glass support was functionalized with silanes to introduce either amine or carboxyl groups, as confirmed e.g. by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By applying glutaraldehyde and EDC/NHS chemistry, respectively, surfaces have been activated for subsequent successful coupling of tyrosinase. Via protein hydrolysis and amino acid characterization by HPLC, the quantity of bound tyrosinase was shown to correspond to a full surface coverage. Based on the visualized enzymatic conversion of a test substrate at the glass support, the functionalized surfaces may be explored for surface-associated material synthesis in the future.
Linear disturbance development in the von Kármán boundary layer on an infinite rotating-disc is investigated for an extensive range of azimuthal mode numbers
. The study expands upon earlier investigations that were limited to those values of
located near the onset of absolute instability (Lingwood, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 299, 1995, pp. 17–33), where disturbances to the genuine inhomogeneous flow were shown to be globally stable (Davies & Carpenter, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 486, 2003, pp. 287–329). Numerical simulations corresponding to azimuthal mode numbers greater than the conditions for critical absolute instability display a form of global linear instability that is characterised by a faster than exponential temporal growth, similar in appearance to that found on the rotating-disc with mass suction (Thomas & Davies, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 724, 2010, pp. 510–526) and other globally unstable flows (Huerre & Monkewitz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 22, 1990, pp. 473–537). Solutions indicate that a change in the global behaviour arises for
that is marginally greater than those disturbances studied previously. Furthermore, the Reynolds number associated with the larger azimuthal mode numbers coincides with the upper bound of experimental predictions for transition. Thus, the local–global linear stability of the infinite rotating-disc is similar to the scenario outlined by Huerre & Monkewitz (1990) that states a region of local absolute instability is necessary but not sufficient for global instability to ensue. Conditions are derived to predict the azimuthal mode number needed to bring about a change in global behaviour, based on solutions of the linearised complex Ginzburg–Landau equation coupled with numerical simulations of disturbances to the radially homogeneous flow. The long term response is governed by a detuning effect, based on radial variations of the temporal frequency and matching shifts in temporal growth that increases for larger
, eventually attaining values sufficient to engineer global linear instability. The analysis is extended to include mass transfer through the disc surface, with similar conclusions drawn for disturbances to large enough azimuthal mode numbers. Finally, we conclude that the high
modes are unlikely to have a strong influence on disturbance development and transition in the von Kármán flow, as they will be unable to establish themselves across an extended radial range before nonlinear effects are triggered by the huge growth associated with the wavepacket maxima of the lower
-valued convective instabilities.
Documenting leads and lags in terrestrial records of past climate change is critical to understanding the behavior of Earth’s natural climate system and making reliable predictions of future climate conditions. However, uncertainties of several hundred years in age models make it difficult to distinguish synchronicity and feedbacks in paleo archives. In lakes this is often due to the lack of terrestrial macrofossils in climate-sensitive locations, such as high alpine or dryland settings. The potential of radiocarbon (14C) dating of pollen has long been recognized, but the difficulty of cleanly separating pollen from other kinds of organic carbon has limited its usefulness. Here we report 14C ages on pollen separated by flow cytometry, from a set of closely spaced samples from Mono Lake, California. The accuracy of the pollen ages is tested using well-dated bracketing tephras, the South Mono and North Mono-Inyo tephras. In spite of the purity of the sorted samples, the pollen dates are older than the bounding tephras by ~400 yr, similar to some other pollen-dating studies. While improvements in sample preparation protocols are planned, understanding the geological processes involved in the production, preservation, and deposition of pollen at each site will be critical to developing robust high-resolution age models.
The overarching goal of this research was to (i) evaluate the impact of reports with recommendations provided by a hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) unit on the local hospital decision-making processes and implementation activities and (ii) identify the underlying factors of the nonimplementation of recommendations.
All reports produced by the HB-HTA unit between December 2003 and March 2013 were retrieved, and hospital decision makers who requested these reports were solicited for enrolment. Participants were interviewed using a mixed design survey.
Twenty reports, associated with fifteen decision makers, fulfilled the study criteria. Nine decision makers accepted to participate, corresponding to thirteen reports and twenty-three recommendations. Of the twenty-three recommendations issued, 65 percent were implemented, 9 percent were accepted for implementation but not implemented, and 26 percent were declined. In terms of the utility of each report to guide decision makers, 92 percent of the reports were considered in the decision-making process; 85 percent had one or more recommendations adopted; and 77 percent had recommendations implemented. The most frequently mentioned reasons for nonimplementation were related to contextual factors (64 percent), production/diffusion process factors (14 percent), content/format factors (14 percent), or other factors (9 percent). Among the contextual factors, the complexity of the changes (i.e., administrative reasons), budget and resources constraints, failure to identify administrative responsibility to carry out the recommendation, and nonpriority status of the HTA recommendation, were provided.
This study highlights that although HB-HTA reports are useful to hospital managers in their decision-making processes, certain barriers such as contextual factors need to be better addressed to improve HB-HTA efficiency and usefulness.