To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola is a widely grown crop across western Canada and has quickly become a prolific volunteer weed. Glyphosate-resistant soybean is rapidly gaining acreage in western Canada. Thus, there is a need to evaluate herbicide options to manage volunteer GR canola in GR soybean crops. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of various PRE- and POST- emergence herbicides applied sequentially to volunteer GR canola, and to evaluate soybean injury caused by these herbicides. Trials were conducted across Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2014 and 2015. All treatments provided a range of suppression (>70%) to control (>80%) of volunteer canola. All treatments with the exception of the glyphosate treated control reduced aboveground canola biomass by 96% (on average). As well, canola seed contamination was reduced from 36% to less than 5% when a PRE and POST herbicide were both used. Moreover, all combinations of herbicides used had excellent crop safety (<10%). All Pre and Post herbicide combinations provided better control of volunteer canola compared to the glyphosate only control, but tribenuron fb bentazon and tribenuron fb imazamox+bentazon provided solutions that were low cost, currently available (registered in western Canada) and had the potential to minimize development of herbicide resistance in other weeds.
In recent years, soybean acreage has increased significantly in western Canada. One of the challenges associated with growing soybean in western Canada is the control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola, because most soybean cultivars are also glyphosate resistant. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of soybean seeding rate and planting date on competition with volunteer canola. We also attempted to determine how high seeding rate could be raised while still being economically feasible for producers. Soybean was seeded at five different seeding rates (targeted 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) and three planting dates (targeted mid-May, late May, and early June) at four sites across western Canada in 2014 and 2015. Soybean yield consistently increased with higher seeding rates, whereas volunteer canola biomass decreased. Planting date generally produced variable results across site-years. An economic analysis determined that the optimal rate was 40 to 60 plants m−2, depending on market price, and the optimal planting date range was from May 20 to June 1.
Analysis of a recent surge of Morsnevbreen, Svalbard, is used to test predictions of the enthalpy balance theory of surging. High-resolution time series of velocities, ice thickness and crevasse distribution allow key elements of the enthalpy (internal energy) budget to be quantified for different stages of the surge cycle. During quiescence (1936–1990), velocities were very low, and geothermal heat slowly built-up enthalpy at the bed. Measurable mass transfer and frictional heating began in 1990–2010, then positive frictional heating-velocity feedbacks caused gradual acceleration from 2010 to 2015. Rapid acceleration occurred in summer 2016, when extensive crevassing and positive air temperatures allowed significant surface to bed drainage. The surge front reached the terminus in October 2016, coincident with a drop in velocities. Ice plumes in the fjord are interpreted as discharge of large volumes of supercooled water from the bed. Surge termination was prolonged, however, indicating persistence of an inefficient drainage system. The observations closely match predictions of the theory, particularly build-up of enthalpy from geothermal and frictional heat, and surface meltwater, and the concomitant changes in ice-surface elevation and velocity. Additional characteristics of the surge reflect spatial processes not represented in the model, but can be explained with respect to enthalpy gradients.
New technological methods, such as rapidly developing molecular approaches, often provide new tools for scientific advances. However, these new tools are often not utilized equally across different research areas, possibly leading to disparities in progress between these areas. Here, we use empirical evidence from the scientific literature to test for potential discrepancies in the use of genetic tools to study parasitic vs non-parasitic organisms across three distinguishable molecular periods, the allozyme, nucleotide and genomics periods. Publications on parasites constitute only a fraction (<5%) of the total research output across all molecular periods and are dominated by medically relevant parasites (especially protists), particularly during the early phase of each period. Our analysis suggests an increasing complexity of topics and research questions being addressed with the development of more sophisticated molecular tools, with the research focus between the periods shifting from predominantly species discovery to broader theory-focused questions. We conclude that both new and older molecular methods offer powerful tools for research on parasites, including their diverse roles in ecosystems and their relevance as human pathogens. While older methods, such as barcoding approaches, will continue to feature in the molecular toolbox of parasitologists for years to come, we encourage parasitologists to be more responsive to new approaches that provide the tools to address broader questions.
Multilayer graphs consist of several graphs, called layers, where the vertex set of all layers is the same but each layer has an individual edge set. They are motivated by real-world problems where entities (vertices) are associated via multiple types of relationships (edges in different layers). We chart the border of computational (in)tractability for the class of subgraph detection problems on multilayer graphs, including fundamental problems such as maximum-cardinality matching, finding certain clique relaxations, or path problems. Mostly encountering hardness results, sometimes even for two or three layers, we can also spot some islands of computational tractability.
Tribology—the study of contacting, sliding surfaces—seeks to explain the fundamental mechanisms underlying friction, adhesion, lubrication, and wear, and to apply this knowledge to technologies ranging from transportation and manufacturing to biomedicine and energy. Investigating the contact and sliding of materials is complicated by the fact that the interface is buried from view, inaccessible to conventional experimental tools. In situ investigations are thus critical in visualizing and identifying the underlying physical processes. This article presents key recent advances in the understanding of tribological phenomena made possible by in situ experiments at the nanoscale. Specifically, progress in three key areas is highlighted: (1) direct observation of physical processes in the sliding contact; (2) quantitative analysis of the synergistic action of sliding and chemical reactions (known as tribochemistry) that drives material removal; and (3) understanding the surface and subsurface deformations occurring during sliding of metals. The article also outlines emerging areas where in situ nanoscale investigations can answer critical tribological questions in the future.
Flax yield can be severely reduced by weeds. The combination of limited herbicide options and the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds across the prairies has resulted in a need for more weed control options for flax producers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the tolerance of flax to topramezone, pyroxasulfone, flumioxazin, and fluthiacet-methyl applied alone as well as in a mix with currently registered herbicides. These herbicides were applied alone and in mixtures at the 1X and 2X rates and compared with three industry standards and one nontreated control. This experiment was conducted at Carman, MB, and Saskatoon, SK, as a randomized complete block with four replications. Data were collected for crop population, crop height, yield, and thousand-seed weight. Ratings for crop damage (phytotoxicity) were also taken at three separate time intervals: 7 to 14, 21 to 28, and 56+ d after treatment. Crop tolerance to these herbicides varied between site-years. This was largely attributed to differences in spring moisture conditions and the differences in soil characteristics between sites. Herbicide injury was transient. Hence, no herbicide or combination of herbicides significantly impacted crop yield consistently. Flumioxazin was the least promising herbicide evaluated, as it caused severe crop damage (>90%) when conditions were conducive. Overall, flax had excellent tolerance to fluthiacet-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone. Flax had excellent crop safety to the combination of pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone. However, mixing fluthiacet-methyl and topramezone with MCPA and bromoxynil, respectively, increased crop damage and would not be recommended.
Though compact polarimetric approaches have been developed and applied in space and geo researching systems they have not been taken into consideration in automotive applications, yet. A sensor system has been designed to conduct polarimetric measurements in the 77 GHz frequency band, which is permitted for automotive usage. This system is able to transceive linearly as well as circularly polarized electromagnetic continuous waves. Depending on the case of application, the frequency output can be set statically or modulated over time within adjustable parameters. Hence, a variety of compact polarimetric modes can be performed and compared with full polarimetric approaches. Two compact polarimetric modes, dual-circular polarimetric mode, and circular-transmit-linear-receive, will be introduced and applied in this contribution. Their operability in this frequency range will be investigated after the microstrip antennas as well as the beam focusing dielectrical lense are characterized. Finally, results of a realistical measurement set-up will confirm the practicability of compact polarimetric approaches for double bounce recognition.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes of depression, such as neuroticism, anhedonia, and cognitive control deficits.
Within an 8-week multisite trial of sertraline v. placebo for depressed adults (n = 216), we examined whether the combination of machine learning with a Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) can generate individualized treatment recommendations on the basis of endophenotype profiles coupled with clinical and demographic characteristics.
Five pre-treatment variables moderated treatment response. Higher depression severity and neuroticism, older age, less impairment in cognitive control, and being employed were each associated with better outcomes to sertraline than placebo. Across 1000 iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation, the PAI model predicted that 31% of the sample would exhibit a clinically meaningful advantage [post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) difference ⩾3] with sertraline relative to placebo. Although there were no overall outcome differences between treatment groups (d = 0.15), those identified as optimally suited to sertraline at pre-treatment had better week 8 HRSD scores if randomized to sertraline (10.7) than placebo (14.7) (d = 0.58).
A subset of MDD patients optimally suited to sertraline can be identified on the basis of pre-treatment characteristics. This model must be tested prospectively before it can be used to inform treatment selection. However, findings demonstrate the potential to improve individual outcomes through algorithm-guided treatment recommendations.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been linked to impairments in the encoding phase that are associated with aberrant neuronal functioning. Similar abnormalities have been observed in unaffected first-degree relatives (REL) and are thus discussed as candidate endophenotypes. The process of WM consolidation – i.e. the formation of durable WM representations – is assumed to be impaired in SCZ, but no study has investigated WM consolidation and neuronal correlates of visual WM encoding in REL before.
We examined whole-brain activation during the encoding phase with an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study design in 25 SCZ subjects, 22 REL subjects, and 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed a visual masked change detection task that assessed WM performance and consolidation.
SCZ showed deficient WM performance indicating an impairment consolidation process, accompanied by broad neuronal hypoactivation, most prominently in frontal brain regions, as well as increased activity of the anterior cingulate during the encoding phase. REL showed decreased neuronal activity in the middle and medial frontal gyrus and increased activity in the precentral gyrus and insula during encoding, but no significant behavioral deficits were observed. In respect of given consolidation times, REL showed a shift from decreased frontal activity at short time intervals to increased frontal activity at longer time intervals.
Findings suggest WM consolidation may be slowed in REL so that the deployment of compensatory neuronal resources during encoding is needed to assure proper WM performance. This supports the view of WM-related neuronal dysfunctions as a potential endophenotypic marker.
The transmission from one host to another constitutes a challenging obstacle for parasites and is a key determinant of their fitness. Due to their complex life histories involving several different hosts, the free-living dispersal stages (cercariae) of digenean trematodes show a huge diversity in morphology and behaviour. On a finer scale, we still have an extremely limited understanding of the inter- and intraspecific variation in transmission strategies of many trematode species. Here, we present a novel method to study the movement patterns of cercariae of four New Zealand trematode species (Coitocaecum parvum, Maritrema poulini, Apatemon sp. and Aporocotylid sp. I.) via automated video tracking. This approach allows to quantify parameters otherwise not measurable and clearly illustrates the individual strategies of parasites to search for their respective target hosts. Cercariae that seek out an evasive fish target hosts showed higher swimming speeds (acceleration and velocity) and travelled further distances, compared with species searching for high-density crustacean hosts. Automated video tracking provides a powerful tool for such detailed analyses of parasites’ host-searching strategies and can enhance our understanding of complex host–parasite interactions, ranging from parasite community structure to the transmission of potential disease agents.
Analysis of the total surface energy γT and its three components as established by the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good Theory (vOCG) is conducted via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA). γT is correlated with the composition of the top monolayers (ML) obtained from High-Resolution Ion Beam Analysis (HR-IBA). Control of γT enables surface engineering for wafer bonding (Nano-BondingTM) and/or epitaxial growth. Native oxides on boron-doped p-Si(100) are found to average γT of 53 ± 1.4 mJ/m2) and are always hydrophilic. An HF in methanol or aqueous HF etch for 60 s always renders Si(100) hydrophobic. Its γT decreases by 20% to 44 ± 3 mJ/m2 in HF in methanol etch and by 10% to 48 ± 3 mJ/m2 in aqueous HF. On the contrary, GaAs(100) native oxides are found to always be hydrophobic. Tellurium n+-doped GaAs(100) yields an average of γT of 37 ± 2 mJ/m2, 96% of which is due to the Lifshitz-Van der Waals molecular interactions (γLW = 36 ± 1 mJ/m2). However, hydrophobic GaAs(100) can be made highly hydrophilic. After etching, γT increases by almost 50% to 66 ± 1.4 mJ/m2. 3LCAA shows that the γT increase is due to electron acceptor and donor interactions, while the Lifshitz-van der Waals energy γLW remains constant. IBA combining the 3.039 ± 0.01 MeV oxygen nuclear resonance with <111> channeling, shows that oxygen on Si(100) decreases by 10% after aqueous HF etching, from 13.3 ± 0.3 monolayers (ML) to 11.8 ± 0.4 ML 1 hour after etch.Te-doped GaAs(100) exhibits consistent oxygen coverage of 7.2 ± 1.4 ML, decreasing by 50% after etching to a highly hydrophilic surface with 3.6 ± 0.2 oxygen ML. IBA shows that etching does not modify the GaAs surface stoichiometry to within 1% . Combining 3LCAA with HR-IBA provides a quantitative metrology to measure how GaAs and Si surfaces can be altered to a different hydroaffinity and surface termination.
We consider transport networks with nodes scattered at random in a large domain. At certain local rates, the nodes generate traffic flows according to some navigation scheme in a given direction. In the thermodynamic limit of a growing domain, we present an asymptotic formula expressing the local traffic flow density at any given location in the domain in terms of three fundamental characteristics of the underlying network: the spatial intensity of the nodes together with their traffic generation rates, and of the links induced by the navigation. This formula holds for a general class of navigations satisfying a link-density and a sub-ballisticity condition. As a specific example, we verify these conditions for navigations arising from a directed spanning tree on a Poisson point process with inhomogeneous intensity function.