The key strength of hard x-ray full-field microscopy is the large penetration depth of hard x-rays into matter, which allows one to image the interior of opaque objects. Combined with tomographic techniques, the three-dimensional inner structure of an object can be reconstructed without the need for difficult and destructive sample preparation. Projection microscopy and microtomography are now routinely available at synchrotron radiation sources. The resolution of these techniques is limited by that of the detector to 1 µm or slightly less. X-ray images and tomograms at higher spatial resolution can be obtained by x-ray optical magnification, for example, by using parabolic refractive x-ray lenses as a magnifying optic. Combining magnifying x-ray imaging with tomography allows one to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of an object, such as a microprocessor chip, with resolution well below 1 µm. In x-ray scanning microscopy, the sample is scanned through a small-diameter beam. The great advantage of scanning microscopy is that x-ray analytical techniques such as fluorescence analysis, diffraction, and absorption spectroscopy can be used as contrast mechanisms in the microscope. In combination with tomography, fluorescence analysis makes it possible to reconstruct the distribution of different chemical elements inside an object (fluorescence microtomography), while combining absorption spectroscopy with tomography yields the distribution of different oxidation states of atomic species.