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We examine the critical viscous mode of the Taylor–Couette strato-rotational instability, concentrating on cases where the buoyancy frequency
and the inner cylinder rotation rate
are comparable, giving a detailed account for
. The ratio of the outer to the inner cylinder rotation rates
and the ratio of the inner to the outer cylinder radius
. We find considerable variation in the structure of the mode, and the critical Reynolds number
at which the flow becomes unstable. For
, we classify different regions of the
-plane by the critical viscous mode of each region. We find that there is a triple point in the
-plane where three different viscous modes all onset at the same Reynolds number. We also find a discontinuous change in
along a curve in the
-plane, on one side of which exist closed unstable domains where the flow can restabilise when the Reynolds number is increased. A new form of viscous instability occurring for wide gaps has been detected. We show for the first time that there is a region of the parameter space for which the critical viscous mode at the onset of instability corresponds to the inviscid radiative instability of Le Dizès & Riedinger (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 660, 2010, pp. 147–161). Focusing on small-to-moderate wavenumbers, we demonstrate that the viscous and inviscid systems are not always correlated. We explore which viscous modes relate to inviscid modes and which do not. For asymptotically large vertical wavenumbers, we have extended the inviscid analysis of Park & Billant (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 725, 2013, pp. 262–280) to cover the cases where
We do not know who speaks to us. Or should I write: ‘I do not know who speaks to me’? For that pronoun (ðe) seems singular, unless the second person had already begun the collapse of its distinction between number by the time of this utterance. (Unlikely. When was this utterance? Patience. One problem at a time.) I am sitting in my study staring at a digital image of a sentence which was inked onto the skin of a dead animal hundreds of years ago. Four words inside my four walls. It is dark. At this time of year the days close in quickly in Fife. The voice that addresses me is disembodied. If I practise patience, will it reveal itself? ‘I’ am an indirect object. Of the verb, but also of this verse. (I believe these words a poem, but I cannot yet explain to you why.) Apparently, I am the recipient of a house. Four walls in four words. Is their architect the same absentee who speaks these words? Is this the builder? Saying that she has built for me? I do not know the builder's gender, so I will call her she. Of course, I believe myself the addressee – these words are undoubtedly meant for me; that is the conceit of reading and the egotism of being human. But this essay is meant for you. Elaine. Catherine. Caroline. Reader. I shape these words with you in mind. So from now on I will call ðe ‘you’.
In the last paragraph I wrote ‘house’, yet the word bold is really ‘building’: for you was a building built. A tautology. Or an inevitability. How else could a building be? Except by being built? Did you ask to be housed? What did the speaker know, or presume to know, of you, of your life, before she spoke? Before she built?
ðe wes bold gebyld
er pu iboren were.
For you was built a house
Before you were born.
Four more words. You were dative, but you have become nominative. Then, an object, indirectly. Now, a subject. But a passive subject. The speaker, or if not the speaker then at least the absent builder, built before you were born.
While extensive modelling - both physical and virtual - is imperative to develop right-first-time products, the parallel use of virtual and physical models gives rise to two interrelated issues: the lack of revision control for physical prototypes; and the need for designers to manually inspect, measure, and interpret modifications to either virtual or physical models, for subsequent update of the other. The Digital Twin paradigm addresses similar problems later in the product life-cycle, and while these digital twins, or the “twinning” process, have shown significant value, there is little work to date on their implementation in the earlier design stages. With large prospective benefits in increased product understanding, performance, and reduced design cycle time and cost, this paper explores the concept of using the Digital Twin in early design, including an introduction to digital twinning, examination of opportunities for and challenges of their implementation, a presentation of the structure of Early Stage Twins, and evaluation via two implementation cases.
The quality of intimate relationships has been found to be a strong negative predictor for individuals’ mental and physical health problems. A significant predictor of relationship quality is adult attachment insecurity, but the mechanism by which attachment insecurity affects relationship quality needs further investigation. This study investigated whether self-compassion and compassion for one's partner mediated this association. Three hundred and forty-two individuals participated in an online survey assessing attachment anxiety and avoidance, compassionate and uncompassionate attitudes towards self and one's partner, as well as relationship quality and relationship satisfaction. The results showed that low self-compassionate attitude mediated the association between attachment anxiety and poor relationship quality. Further, low compassionate and high uncompassionate attitude towards one's partner mediated the association between attachment avoidance and poor relationship quality. No mediating effect was found for relationship satisfaction. Implications for interventions are discussed.
This review evaluates evidence on dietary interventions for cancer survivors giving an overview of people's views and preferences for service attributes and provides a narrative review. After cancer, people often want to change their diet and there is a plethora of evidence why dietary optimisation would be beneficial. However, cancer survivors have different preferences about attributes of services including: place, person and communication mode. Randomised control trials have been reviewed to provide a narrative summary of evidence of dietary interventions. Most studies were on survivors of breast cancer, with a few on colorectal, prostate and gynaecological survivors. Telephone interventions were the most frequently reported means of providing advice and dietitians were most likely to communicate advice. Dietary assessment methods used were FFQ, food diaries and 24-h recalls. Dietary interventions were shown to increase intake of fruit and vegetables, dietary fibre, and improve diet quality in some studies but with contradictory findings in others. Telephone advice increased fruit and vegetable intake primarily in women with breast cancer and at some time points in people after colorectal cancer, but findings were inconsistent. Findings from mail interventions were contradictory, although diet quality improved in some studies. Web-based and group sessions had limited benefits. There is some evidence that dietary interventions improve diet quality and some aspects of nutritional intake in cancer survivors. However, due to contradictory findings between studies and cancer sites, short term follow-up and surrogate endpoints it is difficult to decipher the evidence base.
What is a materials collection? Why is it in the library? The aim of this paper is to introduce the idea of a materials collection as a result of explorations in arts based research. This involved theorizing ideas of materiality, haptic engagement with objects and relating them to the creative process within a library environment. The collection is a response to a perceived gap between theory and creative practice expressed within the student cohort. The risk to the library comprises a possible erosion of value in the student experience, in that the service becomes marginalized in contrast to the studio based activities. The nature of the research undertaken by the student cohort at the University for the Creative Arts is considered, and the development of the materials collection is presented as a response to this inquiry. The collection forms the site of haptic learning: the sensual engagement with the world is combined with a phenomenological approach to create a space within which the relationship of theory and practice may be developed.
At the QEII Health Sciences Centre Emergency Department (ED) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, advanced care paramedics (ACPs) perform procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) for many indications, including orthopedic procedures. We have begun using ACPs as sedationists for emergent upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. This study compares ACP-performed ED PSA for UGI endoscopy and orthopedic procedures in terms of adverse events, airway intervention, vasopressor requirement, and PSA medication use.
A data set was built from an ED PSA quality control database matching 61 UGI endoscopy PSAs to 183 orthopedic PSAs by propensity scores calculated using age, gender, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Outcomes assessed were hypotension (systolic BP<100 mm Hg or a 15% decrease from baseline), hypoxia (SaO2<90%), apnea (>30 sec), vomiting, arrhythmias, death, airway intervention, vasopressor requirement, and PSA medication use.
UGI endoscopy patients experienced hypotension more frequently than orthopedic patients (OR=4.11, CI: 2.05-8.22) and required airway repositioning less often (OR=0.24, CI: 0.10-0.59). They received ketamine more frequently (OR=15.7, CI: 4.75-67.7) and fentanyl less often (OR=0.30, CI: 0.15-0.63) than orthopedic patients. Four endoscopy patients received phenylephrine, and one required intubation. No patient died in either group.
In ACP-led sedation for UGI endoscopy and orthopedic procedures, adverse events were rare with the notable exception of hypotension, which was more frequent in the endoscopy group. Only endoscopy patients required vasopressor treatment and intubation. We provide preliminary evidence that ACPs can manage ED PSA for emergent UGI endoscopy, although priorities must shift from pain control to hemodynamic optimization.
OLD ENGLISH POETRY is currently undergoing something of a renaissance in contemporary culture. Whereas several decades ago only a minority of nevertheless important and influential twentieth-century poets had taken a direct interest in Old English verse in their own work, so far the twenty-first century has seen a far larger number of poets turning to Old English at least occasionally in their writing, to the point (unimaginable during the 1960s, 70s or 80s), where Old English is becoming part of mainstream practice in contemporary poetics. This chapter will survey and close read some of the poems of this ‘New Old English’ for the first time, and in doing so will offer several observations about the differences between twentieth- and twenty-first-century practice. While a primary focus of this chapter is therefore on contemporary literature, I will also seek to advance arguments about the nature of Old English poetry itself, arguments which I intend to be provocative.
Although some of the poets considered here translate, either partially or wholly, examples of Old English poems, many cannot be said to ‘translate’ Old English in the line-by-line, poem-for-poem sense in which that word is most commonly used. Instead, as we will see shortly, contemporary poets often move ideas from, or even ideas about, Old English poetry, taken from a select group of source texts, into their own work. In this chapter then, I am interested in ‘translation’ in its broadest etymological sense (a bringing or carrying over) and in the translation not only of individual poems, but also of a whole body of poetry, a set of texts: the wholesale translatio of Old English poetry from the first millennium CE into the third. That being the case, it is necessary to begin by delimiting that set of texts, and that in turn begs the seemingly stupid question: what do we mean by ‘Old English poetry’? It is indeed an ingenuous question, but ingenuousness can often expose unquestioned assumptions, and this particular question is not asked often enough, especially as both scholarship and (more arguably) practising writers are changing the kinds of answers that might be given to this inquiry. After all, we cannot sensibly discuss the translation of ‘Old English poetry’ until we know what we mean by that term.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.