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The SUPEREDEN3 study, a phase II randomized controlled trial, suggests that social recovery therapy (SRT) is useful in improving functional outcomes in people with first episode psychosis. SRT incorporates cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques with case management and employment support, and therefore has a different emphasis to traditional CBT for psychosis, requiring a new adherence tool.
This paper describes the SRT adherence checklist and content of the therapy delivered in the SUPEREDEN3 trial, outlining the frequency of SRT techniques and proportion of participants who received a full therapy dose. It was hypothesized that behavioural techniques would be used frequently, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of SRT.
Research therapists completed an adherence checklist after each therapy session, endorsing elements of SRT present. Data from 1236 therapy sessions were reviewed to determine whether participants received full, partial or no therapy dose.
Of the 75 participants randomized to receive SRT, 57.3% received a full dose, 24% a partial dose, and 18.7% received no dose. Behavioural techniques were endorsed in 50.5% of sessions, with cognitive techniques endorsed in 34.9% of sessions.
This report describes an adherence checklist which should be used when delivering SRT in both research and clinical practice. As hypothesized, behavioural techniques were a prominent feature of the SRT delivered in SUPEREDEN3, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of the approach. The use of this adherence tool would be considered essential for anyone delivering SRT looking to ensure adherence to the model.
Enacting high expectations for all students in the classroom is a complex undertaking. Underlying, out-of-awareness assumptions may lead to actions, behaviours or pedagogic choices that do not support these high expectations beliefs and intentions. For Indigenous education, this is compounded by public and professional discourses around deficit positioning, and by historical conditioning, where many Indigenous students do not see achieving in school as part of their cultural identity. High expectations are usually considered as a performance agenda — in terms of effort, learning and achievement. In this paper, we introduce the concept of high-expectations relationships where viewing and enacting high expectations through a relational lens equips educators with strategies to support such performance outcomes. We describe this relational lens where fair, socially just relating establishes a relational space of trust, thus enabling both student motivation and the firm, critically reflective relating necessary for quality learning. Using the voices of educators, we describe how high-expectations relationships can promote collegiate staff environments, strong teacher–student relationships and trusting and supportive relationships with parents and carers. We show how these positive educational attributes of any school community, seeded through a focus on high-expectations relationships, work to support the performance outcomes of a high-expectations educational agenda.
In this case study we address the issue of CEO succession drawing directly on the experience of the board of directors of Air New Zealand. Despite extensive literature on CEO-board relations, there has been a scarce number of studies on managing the processes of CEO succession and appointment from the board perspective. Drawing on documentary sources as well as in-depth interviews with all board members and CEOs appointed in the period 2002–2013, we shed light on this important governance process primarily for teaching purposes. We emphasise the board’s role in the context of the transformation of the airline into an award-winning, financially performing company in a highly competitive and mature industry. The case study examines how the board developed, implemented, and managed a succession process for three CEOs that was sound in design and achieved its desired benefits. By focusing on board leadership and board processes our case study provides evidence that independent boards can shape a specific combination of governance practices which contribute to successful CEO transitions.
Extinction is the complete loss of a species, but the accuracy of that status depends on the overall information about the species. Dracaena umbraculifera was described in 1797 from a cultivated plant attributed to Mauritius, but repeated surveys failed to relocate it and it was categorized as Extinct on the IUCN Red List. However, several individuals labelled as D. umbraculifera grow in botanical gardens, suggesting that the species’ IUCN status may be inaccurate. The goal of this study was to understand (1) where D. umbraculifera originated, (2) which species are its close relatives, (3) whether it is extinct, and (4) the identity of the botanical garden accessions and whether they have conservation value. We sequenced a cpDNA region of Dracaena from Mauritius, botanical garden accessions labelled as D. umbraculifera, and individuals confirmed to be D. umbraculifera based on morphology, one of which is a living plant in a private garden. We included GenBank accessions of Dracaena from Madagascar and other locations and reconstructed the phylogeny using Bayesian and parsimony approaches. Phylogenies indicated that D. umbraculifera is more closely related to Dracaena reflexa from Madagascar than to Mauritian Dracaena. As anecdotal information indicated that the living D. umbraculifera originated from Madagascar, we conducted field expeditions there and located five wild populations; the species’ IUCN status should therefore be Critically Endangered because < 50 wild individuals remain. Although the identity of many botanical garden samples remains unresolved, this study highlights the importance of living collections for facilitating new discoveries and the importance of documenting and conserving the flora of Madagascar.
The Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) is a radio continuum imaging survey of the southern sky at 843 MHz, with similar sensitivity and resolution to the northern NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). We have combined radio data from SUMSS and NVSS with optical spectra from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and 6dF Galaxy Survey to study the space distribution and properties of both AGN and star-forming galaxies in the local universe (redshift range 0 < z < 0.3). We also discuss new results on radio-source clustering in the more distant universe (z ∼ 1) and present the first results from a search for the most distant (z > 3) southern radio galaxies.
As China shifts its development model from focusing on economic growth at all costs to a model in which economic growth is balanced with solving pressing societal and environmental problems, there is an increasing need for management research on building sustainable organizations in China. This collection of papers focuses attention on the role of business in promoting sustainable economic development, highlighting a number of key processes including: the factors that foster transparency and CSR reporting, how stakeholders can influence corporations to abandon their CSR commitments, the benefits of environmental branding and labeling, and the antecedents and performance consequences of proactive environmental strategies. In this introductory essay we reflect on recent trends in sustainability research in China, and to encourage this important movement, provide recommendations for future research directions.
Solid state chemists have long been interested in templated growth of materials using many approaches. The resulting materials have been useful in areas as diverse as photonics and catalysis. Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) form a new class of nanotemplates that can have sub 20 nm pores that are meters to kilometers long. We have developed a high-pressure microfluidic chemical process that allows for conformal deposition of materials within MOFs to form the most extreme aspect ratio semiconductor nanowires known. The wires can be spatially organized with respect to each other at dimensions down to the nanoscale because the MOF templates can be designed with almost any desired periodic or aperiodic pattern. Many if not most of the chemistries used for conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be adapted for this process. The resulting materials should enable a large range of scientific and technological applications.
High thermal conductivity heat sinks for thermal management in electronic packaging is enabling to a variety of advanced electronic applications. Heat sinks in industrial semiconductor application have thermal conductivities generally less than 180 W/mK, and frequently have large expansion mismatch with chips such as silicon and gallium arsenide. A unique technology of producing graphite fiber reinforced copper (Cf/Cu) composite has been developed that produced thermal conductivities up to 454 W/mK utilizing a K=640 W/mK fiber reinforcement (with a potential for 800 W/mK when utilizing a K = 1100 W/mK P130 fiber) and thermal expansion that can be matched to chip materials. The process consists of utilizing a hollow cathode sputtering process to deposit a bonding layer followed by copper on spread graphite fibers, which are then consolidated into composites with architectures to achieve desired thermal conductivity and thermal expansion. The copper thickness determines graphite fiber loading up to 80 %. In heat sink applications, where the electrical conductivity of the graphite fiber reinforced copper composite is a problem, processing has been developed for applying electrically insulating diamond film, which has high thermal conductivity and acts as a heat spreader.
This paper treats the subject of hydrogen in semiconductors from various perspectives. First, a brief historical overview is given. Then, some basic principles governing the interaction between hydrogen and semiconductors are outlined. Finally, specific examples will emphasize the impact of hydrogen on technological applications. While the general treatment applies to interactions of hydrogen with any semiconductor, the applications will focus mainly on hydrogen interacting with silicon.
Scalars with different molecular diffusivities can be transported at different rates in a strongly stratified, weakly turbulent flow. Rapid distortion theory (RDT) is used to examine the mechanisms responsible for differential diffusion of scalars in a sheared stratified flow. The theory, which applies when the flow is strongly stratified, predicts upgradient flux and its wavenumber dependence, which previous direct numerical simulations have shown to be important in differential diffusion. The net effect of shear on differential diffusion depends on the Grashof number, or the relative importance of buoyancy and viscous effects. RDT also allows the effects of the density ratio, Schmidt number, Lewis number, scalar activity and mean shear to be examined without the high computational cost of direct numerical simulation. RDT predicts that differential diffusion will increase with increasing density ratio, but only at low Grashof number. When the Lewis number is fixed, the Grashof number below which differential diffusion occurs decreases with increasing Schmidt number, and when one of the Schmidt numbers is fixed, differential diffusion decreases with increasing Lewis number. Also, differential transport of passive scalars increases when the Schmidt number of the scalar stratifying the flow increases.
Personality theorists usually get ever more adventurous as they set out empirically to test their ever more sophisticated theories. Most naturally begin in the laboratory, sometimes even the animal house, testing fundamental (biological and behavioural) tenets of the theory, which develops and changes as it is tested. However, demands both for ecological validity and applicability mean they soon find themselves testing theoretical assumptions on ‘real people in real settings’. These settings are most frequently the clinic, the classroom and the office/factory.
Any inspection of work of the trait theorists like Eysenck, Cattell and latterly Costa and McCrae shows how they usually first became interested in the clinical applications of their work, then the educational applications and finally the occupational and organizational applications. Perhaps because Eysenck was at the Institute of Psychiatry (though neither a trained nor practising clinician) he took a great deal of interest in clinical issues with all three dimensions (i.e., Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism) having obvious clinical implications. Being both a trained clinician and a student of Eysenck, it is no surprise that Jeffrey Gray too, chose to test many of his ideas first on rats and then on patients.
Raymond Cattell, of the three, seemed more interested in the educational sphere, both because of his educational training but also because of his work on intelligence. Similarly Hans Eysenck was always interested in learning theory and intelligence and always took an active interest in how both personality and intelligence predicted educational behaviours and outcomes.
Studies have consistently found that many individuals with first-episode psychosis experience significant delays before receiving treatment. Current research investigating treatment delays has focused on the relationship between demographic factors and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). However, treatment-seeking behaviours in this group have not been investigated.
To examine psychological processes that influence the decision-making process to contact primary care, in individuals with emerging psychosis.
The influence of coping style, health locus of control and past health help-seeking behaviour on DUP was investigated in clients with a first episode of psychosis. This involved scrutiny of general practitioner (GP) records in an average of 6 years before the first treatment.
Shorter DUP was associated with more frequent GP attendance in the 6 years before the onset of psychosis and lower health threat avoidant coping scores.
Patients with short DUP have a history of higher contact with their GP and, as a group, tend not to avoid health threats. The study underlines the importance of engaging young people and their families with primary care as one of a series of strategies to reduce DUP.