The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a very serious invasive pest in North America, causing extremely high levels of mortality to ash trees (Fraxinus Linnaeus, Oleaceae) in the United States of America and Canada. Knowledge of buprestid chemical ecology is sparse, but the appearance of EAB in North America and its devastating ecological and economic impacts, particularly in the urban environment, have provided an opportunity to study the semiochemistry, natural history, and ecology of this buprestid in detail. This review will summarise the chemical ecology of EAB to date, discussing studies on semiochemistry, natural history, and behaviour with respect to host and mate finding that have identified several female-produced pheromone components (contact and sex pheromones), and attractive host kairomones. Earlier reviews focused on studies of attractive host volatiles with respect to development of a trapping system and visual and contact phenomena in EAB mate finding. This has led to the development of an efficient trapping system for EAB, with attempts to optimise the range of variables in trap protocols, combining pheromone components, release rates, and combinations with host kairomones, as well as trap type, placement, height, and colour being taken into account.