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To report a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI; ribotype 027) between June 2007 and August 2008, describe infection control measures, and evaluate the impact of restricting the use of fluoroquinolones in controlling the outbreak.
Outbreak investigation in 3 acute care hospitals of the Northern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland.
Implementation of a series of CDI control measures that targeted high-risk antibiotic agents (ie, restriction of fluoroquinolones), infection control practices, and environmental hygiene.
A total of 318 cases of CDI were identified during the outbreak, which was the result of the interaction between C. difficile ribotype 027 being introduced into the affected hospitals for the first time and other predisposing risk factors (ranging from host factors to suboptimal compliance with antibiotic guidelines and infection control policies). The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 24.5%; however, CDI was the attributable cause of death for only 2.5% of the infected patients. Time series analysis showed that restricting the use of fluoroquinolones was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of CDI (coefficient, —0.054; lag time, 4 months; P = .003).
These findings provide additional evidence to support the value of antimicrobial stewardship as an essential element of multifaceted interventions to control CDI outbreaks. The present CDI outbreak was ended following the implementation of an action plan improving communication, antibiotic stewardship, infection control practices, environmental hygiene, and surveillance.
Does incidence of dementia follow the age pattern of prevalence? Is gender a risk factor? Do patterns of incidence differ between dementias?
To assess age-specific incidence rates of undifferentiated dementias, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.
5222 individuals aged $65 years, were interviewed using the Geriatric Mental State/History and Aetiology Schedule. The AGECAT package was used to identify cases at three interviewing waves at two-year intervals. Diagnoses were made using ICD −10 Research Criteria and validated against neurological and psychological examination, with imaging and neuropathology on unselected subsamples.
Incidence rates of the dementias increase with age. Age patterns are similar between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Gender appears influential in Alzheimer's disease. In England and Wales, 39 437 new cases of Alzheimer's disease (4.9/1000 person-years at risk); 20 513 of vascular dementia (2.6/1000 person-years) and 155 169 of undifferentiated dementia (19/1000 person-years) can be expected each year.
Incidence rates for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia appear to behave differently with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease for women compared to vascular dementia.
Risk factors of depression in later life, particularly for sub-cases and for psychotic and neurotic types of depression, are unclear.
To identify such risk factors.
Over 5200 older people ($65 years), randomly selected from Liverpool, were interviewed using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS)and the Minimum Data Set (MDS). The computer-assisted diagnosis AGECAT identified 483 cases and 575 sub-cases of depression and 2451 with no mental problems. Logistic regression was employed to examine factors relevant to caseness.
In multiple logistical regression, odds ratios (ORs) were significantly high for being female (2.04, 95% CI 1.56–2.69), widowed (2.00, 1.18–3.39), having alcohol problems (4.37, 1.40–2.94), physical disablement (2.03, 1.40–2.94), physical illness (1.98,.1.25–3.15), taking medications to calm down (10.04, 6.41 −15.71), and dissatisfaction with life (moderate 4.54, 3.50–5.90; more severe 29.00, 16.00–52.59). Good social networks reduced the ORs. If sub-cases were included as controls, the statistical significance was reduced.
Age was not associated with depression in later life whereas gender, physical disablement and dissatisfaction with life were. The sub-cases shared many risk factors with cases, suggesting that prevention may need to be attempted at an early stage.
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