Wapusk National Park is part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in Manitoba and covers 11 475 km2. Lichen surveys were initiated in 2002 but none have reported all species incorporating broad habitat types or a baseline on which to make management decisions. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine species diversity, including species richness and evenness of the lichens present; 2) to explore species distributions; and 3) to compare lichen growth form and substratum relationships among physiographic regions. Fifty-six locations in four habitat types (physiographic regions: open coastal beach ridge, forested coastal beach ridge, boreal transition forest, and peat plateau bog) and three burned locations were visited over nine years and specimens were collected at each location. A total of 276 species and subspecies were collected. One species is new to Canada (Buellia uberior Anzi) and ten species are new to Manitoba. Species diversity, evenness, and richness were highest in the coastal beach ridge. The open coastal beach ridge, boreal transition forest, and peat plateau bogs formed separate clusters in the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) but the forested coastal beach ridge overlapped with the open coastal beach ridge. Unique species in each region may serve as indicators to monitor long-term changes. While the coastal beach ridge facilitates travel along the coast, it also represents the region with the highest need for intervention to conserve species diversity.