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Vortex structures are very popular research objects in turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) because of their prime importance in turbulence modelling. This work performs a tomographic particle image velocimetry measurement on the near-wall region (
) of TBLs at three Reynolds numbers
, 2286 and 3081. The main attention is paid to the wall-normal evolution of the vortex geometries and topologies. The vortex is identified with swirl strength (
), and its orientation is recognized by using the real eigenvector of the velocity gradient tensor. The vortex inclination angles in the streamwise–wall-normal plane and in the streamwise–spanwise plane as functions of wall-normal positions are investigated, which provide useful information to speculate on the three-dimensional shape of the vortex tubes in a TBL. The difference between the orientations of vorticity and swirl is discussed and their inherent relationship is revealed based on the governing equation of vorticity. Linear stochastic estimation (LSE) is further deployed to directly extract three-dimensional vortex models. The LSE velocity fields for ejection events happening at different wall-normal positions shed light on the evolution of the topologies for the vortices dominating ejection events. LSE based on a centred prograde spanwise vortex provides a typical packet model, which indicates that the population density of the packets in a TBL is large enough to leave footprints in conditionally averaged flow fields. This work should help to settle the severe debate on the existence of packet structures and also lays some foundation for the TBL model theory.
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of learning engagement on the relationship between social networking site (SNS) addiction and academic achievement among 406 university students. The Social Networking Site Addiction Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, and Chinese Students Academic Achievement Scale were used to evaluate students’ SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement. Correlation analysis indicated that SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement were significantly correlated with each other. The causal steps regression and bootstrap analysis show that learning engagement mediated the relationship between SNS addiction and academic achievement. Implications for research and instructions for how to improve university students’ academic achievement are discussed.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
We study the relationship between societal trust and risk-taking in the banking industry. Prior literature has found that societal trust is positively related to both financial reporting conservatism and financial reporting transparency, which reduce bank managers’ ability to take excessive risk. Additionally, bank managers in high-trust countries are more likely to exhibit higher pro-social behavior and, therefore, less likely to take excessive risk for personal benefit. Consistent with these arguments, we document that banks in countries with higher societal trust exhibit lower risk-taking and that these banks also experienced less financial trouble and fewer failures during the 2007–2009 financial crisis.
Masulis and Mobbs (2014), (2015) find that independent directors with multiple directorships allocate their monitoring efforts unequally based on a directorship’s relative prestige. We investigate whether bank loan contract terms reflect such unequal allocation of directors’ monitoring effort. We find that bank loans of firms with a greater proportion of independent directors for whom the board is among their most prestigious have lower spreads, longer maturities, fewer covenants, lower syndicate concentration, lower likelihood of collateral requirement, lower annual loan fees, and higher bond ratings. Our evidence indicates that independent directors’ attention is associated with lower cost of borrowing.
The aim of the research reported in this Research Communication was to identify differentially expressed proteins in dairy cows with normal and lutein diet and to elucidate the mechanisms of lutein-induced effects on bovine mammary gland metabolism using a comparative proteomic approach. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified from mammary gland of control diet-fed and lutein diet-fed dairy cows. Among these proteins, 15 were upregulated and 18 were downregulated in the lutein group. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed that increased blood flow, depressed glycolysis, enhanced lactose anabolism, decreased fatty acid oxidation and up-regulated beta lactoglobulin expression were connected with lutein addition. These results suggested that the increased blood flow, reduced glucose catabolism, enhanced capacity for milk lactose synthesis, depressed fatty acid catabolism and increased expression of antioxidantion related protein may be the prime factors contributing to the increased milk production and enhanced immune status in lutein-fed dairy cows. This study provides molecular mechanism of dietary lutein in regulating lactation of dairy cows.
The present study is devoted to characterizing the coherent organization of vortical structures, which can be fitted into the paradigm of the hairpin-packet model, in the streamwise–wall-normal plane of a canonical turbulent boundary layer at
. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the planar velocity fields measured via two-dimensional particle image velocimetry, together with a spatio-temporal coherence analysis, shows that the first four leading-order POD modes share both geometric similarity and dynamic coherence and jointly depict the downstream convection of the large-scale Q2/Q4 events, which can be regarded as the low-order imprints of the hairpin packets. A simple low-order indicator is then proposed to extract the inclined interfaces of the hairpin packets, based on which a two-point conditional correlation analysis forms a statistical picture of the spatial organization of multiple prograde vortices aligned along the interface within one packet. A saturation of the self-similar growth of the streamwise gap between two neighbouring vortices is seen. This implies a detachment of the hairpin packets from the inner layer. Both the detachment height and the saturated streamwise spacing are found to scale as
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Wake vortex evolution of a square cylinder with a slot synthetic jet issuing from the cylinder’s rear surface has been experimentally investigated using the time-resolved particle image velocimetry technique. The Reynolds number based on the side length of the square cylinder is
. The excitation frequency normalized by the natural shedding frequency
varies from 0 to 6 at the dimensionless stroke length
. The distributions of the time-averaged Reynolds stresses present significant differences as the excitation frequency increases. With control, the mean streamwise velocity deficit of the wake recovers more quickly in comparison with the natural case, and the vertical velocity fluctuation intensity becomes weaker. Moreover, a drag reduction can be achieved for the control cases, especially, for
, a thrust instead of drag reduction can be obtained. The profiles of the mean streamwise velocity tend to have jet-like distributions. The wake vortex dynamics and its evolution with the excitation frequency are revealed. (i) For the low excitation frequency cases (
, 1, 2), no significant changes in the dominant frequency and the spanwise vortex structures are observed in comparison with the natural case. (ii) For the moderate excitation frequency case (
), the wake vortex shedding frequency is locked on half of the control frequency. In this case, the shear layer is divided into two parts by the synthetic jet vortex, and the wake vortices with smaller scales still shed asymmetrically and appear closer to the square cylinder. (iii) For the high excitation frequency case (
), the flow is governed by the synthetic jet. As a result of strong perturbations of the synthetic jet, the wake vortex shedding becomes symmetric with the shedding frequency consistent with the control frequency. And the separation is suppressed effectively. The different control effects of the slot synthetic jet on a square cylinder and a circular cylinder are also compared in detail. Generally speaking, the circular cylinder is easier to be controlled due to its non-fixed separation points.
The dynamics of vortical structures in flow over a circular cylinder in the vicinity of a flat plate is investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The cylinder is placed above the flat plate with its axis parallel to the wall and normal to the flow direction. The Reynolds number
based on the cylinder diameter
is 1072 and the gap
between the cylinder and the flat plate is varied from gap-to-diameter ratio
. The flow statistics and vortex dynamics are strongly dependent on the gap ratio
. Statistics show that as the cylinder comes close to the wall (
), the cylinder wake becomes more and more asymmetric and a boundary layer separation is induced on the flat plate downstream of the cylinder. The wake vortex shedding frequency increases with decreasing
until a critical gap ratio (about
) below which the vortex shedding is irregular. The deflection of the gap flow away from the wall and its following interaction with the upper shear layer may be the cause of the higher shedding frequency. The vortex dynamics is investigated based on the phase-averaged flow field and virtual dye visualization in the instantaneous PIV velocity field. It is revealed that when the cylinder is close to the wall (
), the cylinder wake vortices can periodically induce secondary spanwise vortices near the wall. As the cylinder approaches the wall (
) the secondary vortex can directly interact with the lower wake vortex, and a further approaching of the cylinder (
) can result in more complex interactions among the secondary vortex, the lower wake vortex and the upper wake vortex. The breakdown of vortices into filamentary debris during vortex interactions is clearly revealed by the coloured virtual dye visualizations. For
, the lower shear layer is strongly inhibited and only the upper shear layer can shed vortices. Investigation of the vortex formation, evolution and interaction in the flow promotes the understanding of the flow physics for different gap ratios.
In the paper, we focus on atom diffusion behavior in Ni-based superalloys, which have important applications in the aero-industry. Specifically, the expressions of the key physical parameter – transition rate (jump rate) in the diffusion can be given from the diffusion theory in solids and the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method, respectively. The transition rate controls the diffusion process and is directly related to the energy of vacancy formation and the energy of migration of atom from density functional theory (DFT). Moreover, from the KMC calculations, the diffusion coefficients for Ni and Al atoms in the γ phase (Ni matrix) and the γʹ phase (intermetallic compound Ni3Al) of the superalloy have been obtained. We propose a strategy of time stepping to deal with the multi-time scale issues. In addition, the influence of temperature and Al concentration on diffusion in dilute alloys is also reported.
Evolution of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) in a flat plate boundary layer transition induced by the wake of a circular cylinder is investigated. Both hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used. It is found that downstream of the cylinder, the disturbance in the boundary layer experiences a fast growth followed by a slow decay in the transition. Lagrangian coherent structures are revealed by qualitative hydrogen bubble visualizations and quantitative finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) fields derived from the PIV data. The evolution of the LCS is considered from the very beginning of the transition up to when the boundary layer becomes fully developed turbulent flow. The mean convection velocity and average inclination angle of the LCS are first extracted from the FTLE fields. The streamwise length of the low-speed streaks seems to increase, while their spanwise distance decreases in the boundary layer transition. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the PIV data shows that low-speed streaks associated with the hairpin vortices and hairpin packets are the dominant coherent structures close to the wall in the transitional and turbulent boundary layer. The POD modes also reveal a variety of scales in the turbulent boundary layer. Moreover, it is found that large-scale coherent structures can modulate the amplitude of the small-scale ones.
The escalating tendency of elderly population aged 65 and over, which grown up to 9% since 2001 in Taiwan, remarks the important issue of mental health among ageing population. Depression in the elderly is frequently undetected or inadequately treated. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacotherapy of elderly patients with depression by comparing the patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs (psychotropics) of psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists.
A random sampling of 5% of inpatients from the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan from 2001 to 2003 was selected. In all, 1058 (0.9%) inpatients aged 65 and older with a diagnosis of any depressive disorder were included. The psychotropic prescribing pattern and the dosages used were analysed and compared. Physician specialties were based on the record of NHI database. Non-psychiatrists were defined by physicians other than psychiatry.
A total of 88% of elderly depressed inpatients had two or more comorbid physical illnesses. The most commonly prescribed psychotropics were: antidepressants (71.4%), anxiolytics (62.6%) and hypnotics (51.4%). Psychiatrists had a higher rate of prescribing psychotropics, except anxiolytics, than non-psychiatrists. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were commonly prescribed, non-psychiatrists preferred the use of tricyclic antidepressants and moclobemide. Trazodone was the most preferred antidepressant, but was generally used in low dosages.
Psychiatrists generally utilised higher dosages of newer antidepressants than non-psychiatrists. Differences in the prescribing pattern of psychotropics existed between physician specialties. Further investigations are warranted to determine how the selection and dosing of drugs influence the outcome of depression on the elderly.