Moraines in five valleys of the Turkestan range of the Pamir-Alay, Kyrgyz Republic, were analyzed based on their geographical position and elevation, morphology and ecological characteristics. The moraines represent four glacial advances: Turkestan Stage I, during the last glacial; Stage II, during the late Holocene; Stage III, during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400−1900); and Stage IV, during the 20th century. In Turkestan Stage I, the glaciers expanded to about 5−10 km from their present termini during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. Radiocarbon ages for several soil layers buried in a lateral moraine of the Asan-Usin glacier frontal area indicate that glaciers shrank or stagnated between at least ∼48 and 42 kyr BP, during the warm climate of mid-MIS 3. These findings suggest that the glacier expansion in mid-MIS 3 was relatively small compared to the glacier expansion of MIS 2 during the last glacial.