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Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and
long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD)
We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on
A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was
identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic
status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and
healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011).
A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of
hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from
low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium
levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs.
Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher
healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those
with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential
benefits of cost savings in the following years.
The gas-kinetic scheme is applied to a depth-integrated continuum model for avalanche flows, namely the Savage-Hutter model. In this method, the continuum fluxes are calculated based on the pseudo particle motions which are relaxed from nonequilibrium to equilibrium states. The processes are described by the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. The benefit of this scheme is its capability to resolve shock discontinuities sharply and to handle the vacuum state without special treatments. Because the Savage-Hutter equation bears an anisotropic stress on the tangential space of the topography, the equilibrium distribution function of the microscopic particles are shown to be bi-Maxwellian. These anisotropic stresses are the key to preserve the coordinate objectivity in the Savage-Hutter model. The effect of the anisotropic stress is illustrated by two examples: an axisymmetric dam break and a finite mass sliding on an inclined plane chute. It is found that the propagation of the flow fronts significantly depends on the orientation of the principal axes of the tangential stresses.
ZnO has shown great promise for the application in optoelectronic devices. Since the modulation of conductivity is one of the key issues in device performances, we have applied the Monte Carlo method to analyze the mobility of poly-crystalline MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure thin film layer in this paper. The effects of the grain boundary scattering, ionized impurity scattering, as well as phonon scattering are considered. Our study shows that with a design of modulation doping by including the effects of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization, the grain boundary potential can be suppressed to improve the mobility of the ZnO layer by order(s) of magnitude. Simulation results are also confirmed by our experimental works that polarization effects play an important role to attract carriers and to increase the mobility.
The impact of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was enormous, but few studies have focused on the infectious and general health status of healthcare workers (HCWs) who treated patients with SARS.
We prospectively evaluated the general health status of HCWs during the SARS epidemic.The Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 Survey was given to all HCWs immediately after caring for patients with SARS and 4 weeks after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts. Tests for detection of SARS Coronavirus antibody were performed for HCWs at these 2 time points and for control subjects during the SARS epidemic.
Tertiary care referral center in Taipei, Taiwan.
Ninety SARS-care task force members (SARS HCWs) and 82 control subjects.
All serum specimens tested negative for SARS antibody. Survey scores for SARS HCWs immediately after care were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < .05 by the t test) in 6 categories. Vitality, social functioning, and mental health immediately after care and vitality and mental health after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts were among the worst subscales. The social functioning, role emotional, and role physical subscales significantly improved after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts (P < .05, by paired t test). The length of contact time (mean number of contact-hours per day) with patients with SARS was associated with some subscales (role emotional, role physical, and mental health) to a mild extent. The total number of contact-hours with symptomatic patients with SARS was a borderline predictor (adjusted R2 = 0.069; P = .038) of mental health score.
The impact of the SARS outbreak on SARS HCWs was significant in many dimensions of general health. The vitality and mental health status of SARS HCWs 1 month after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts remained inferior to those of the control group.
To determine risk factors for hemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections (HCRBSIs) and investigate whether use of maximal sterile barrier precautions would prevent HCRBSIs.
Tertiary-care medical center hemodialysis unit.
Open trial with historical comparison and case-control study of risk factors for HCRBSIs.
Prospective surveillance was used to compare HCRBSI rates for 1 year before and after implementation of maximal sterile barrier precautions. A case–control study compared 50 case-patients with HCRBSI with 51 randomly selected control-patients.
The HCRBSI rate was 1.6% per 100 dialysis runs (CI95, 1.1%–2.3%) in the first year and 0.77% (CI95, 0.5%–1.1%) in the second year (P = .0106). The most frequent cause of HCRBSI was MRSA in the first year (15 of 32) and MSSA in the second year (13 of 18). Ten MRSA blood isolates in the first year were identical by PFGE. Diabetes mellitus was a risk factor for HCRBSI. Age, gender, site of hemodialysis central venous catheter (CVC), other underlying diseases, coma score, APACHE II score, serum albumin level, and cholesterol level were not associated with HCRBSI and did not change between the 2 years. Hospital stay was prolonged for case-patients (32.78 ± 20.96 days) versus control-patients (22.75 ± 17.33 days), but mortality did not differ.
Use of maximal sterile barrier precautions during the insertion of CVCs reduced HCRBSIs in dialysis patients and seemed cost-effective. Diabetes mellitus was associated with HCRBSI. An outbreak of MRSA in the first year was likely caused by cross-infection via medical personnel.
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