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Research has demonstrated that trusting belief in one's ability is critical to coproducer selection; however, the importance of trusting belief in dedication has been ignored. This study aims to explore how reputation (i.e., word-of-mouth, certification, and recommendation) affects trusting belief in a potential coproducer's ability and dedication and examines its mediating effects in coproducing with a potential partner.
Empirical results show significant mediating effects of trusting belief in a potential coproducer's ability from certification, word-of-mouth, and recommendation, which in turn motivate coproduction, whereas certification leads to the motivation for coproduction through trusting belief in a potential coproducer's dedication. The findings refer to a unitary acceptance of ability but a divergent recognition of dedication. The focal party may regard certification as factual without personal distortion, while the recommendation is an evaluation worth considering. In considering dedication, the focal party may be unable to assess the extent of distortion from second-hand information (e.g., word-of-mouth).
The shape memory properties of Ni–Al alloy are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The phase transformation behaviors for various Ni composition ratios are studied under quasistatic cooling and heating process. Various loadings, i.e., uniaxial, shear, and biaxial, are applied on a 68% Ni–Al alloy till plasticity takes place. The atomic configurations are inspected and analyzed using a common neighbor parameter. The shape recovery capability of the plastically deformed alloy is examined after heating above the phase transformation temperature. It is found that there would be shape recovery if the twinning plane reorientation or moving was the major yielding mechanism. For those loadings in which stacking faults or dislocations nucleate, the deformed model would not restore to its original shape after heating and the corresponding maximum shear stress is noticeably higher. There is no direct dependence between the yield strain and the shape recovery capability. Our findings could provide a possible explanation for the functional fatigue of the polycrystalline shape memory alloy.
Depression is associated with increased mortality, however, little is known about its variation by ethnicity.
We conducted a cohort study of individuals with ICD-10 unipolar depression from secondary mental healthcare, from an ethnically diverse location in southeast London, followed for 8 years (2007–2014) linked to death certificates. Age- and sex- standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), with the population of England and Wales as a standard population were derived. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were derived through multivariable regression procedures.
Data from 20 320 individuals contributing 91 635 person-years at risk with 2366 deaths were used for analyses. SMR for all-cause mortality in depression was 2.55(95% CI 2.45–2.65), with similar trends by ethnicity. Within the cohort with unipolar depression, adjusted HR (aHRs) for all-cause mortality in ethnic minority groups relative to the White British group were 0.62(95% CI 0.53–0.74) (Black Caribbean), 0.53(95% CI 0.39–0.72) (Black African) and 0.69(95% CI 0.52–0.90) (South Asian). Male sex and alcohol/substance misuse were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk [aHR:1.94 (95% CI 1.68–2.24) and aHR:1.18 (95% CI 1.01–1.37) respectively], whereas comorbid anxiety was associated with a decreased risk [aHR: 0.72(95% CI 0.58–0.89)]. Similar associations were noted for natural-cause mortality. Alcohol/substance misuse and male sex were associated with a near-doubling in unnatural-cause mortality risk, whereas Black Caribbean individuals with depression had a reduced unnatural-cause mortality risk, relative to White British people with depression.
Although individuals with depression experience an increased mortality risk, marked heterogeneity exists by ethnicity. Research and practice should focus on addressing tractable causes underlying increased mortality in depression.
Serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) is associated with worse general health. However, admissions to general hospitals have received little investigation. We sought to delineate frequencies of and causes for non-psychiatric hospital admissions in SMI and compare with the general population in the same area.
Records of 18 380 individuals with SMI aged ⩾20 years in southeast London were linked to hospitalisation data. Age- and gender-standardised admission ratios (SARs) were calculated by primary discharge diagnoses in the 10th edition of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes, referencing geographic catchment data.
Commonest discharge diagnosis categories in the SMI cohort were urinary conditions, digestive conditions, unclassified symptoms, neoplasms, and respiratory conditions. SARs were raised for most major categories, except neoplasms for a significantly lower risk. Hospitalisation risks were specifically higher for poisoning and external causes, injury, endocrine/metabolic conditions, haematological, neurological, dermatological, infectious and non-specific (‘Z-code’) causes. The five commonest specific ICD-10 diagnoses at discharge were ‘chronic renal failure’ (N18), a non-specific code (Z04), ‘dental caries’ (K02), ‘other disorders of the urinary system’ (N39), and ‘pain in throat and chest’ (R07), all of which were higher than expected (SARs ranging 1.57–6.66).
A range of reasons for non-psychiatric hospitalisation in SMI is apparent, with self-harm, self-neglect and/or reduced healthcare access, and medically unexplained symptoms as potential underlying explanations.
Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and
long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD)
We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on
A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was
identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic
status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and
healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011).
A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of
hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from
low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium
levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs.
Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher
healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those
with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential
benefits of cost savings in the following years.
Abundant insect fossils have been recorded from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jiuquan Basin, but very few odonatans have been recorded. In this paper, a new damsel-dragonfly, Cretastenophlebia jiuquanensis sp. nov., is described from the Lower Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation in the Hanxiagou outcrop, Jiuquan Basin, northwestern China. This is the second species of the genus Cretastenophlebia Fleck et al., 2003. Cretastenophlebia jiuquanensis sp. nov. differs from Cretastenophlebia mongolica Fleck et al., 2003 in the presence of a broad discoidal triangle, a basally straight IR1 and less cells along the posterior wing margin between IR2 and RP2. Cretastenophlebia has been previously reported from the Lower Cretaceous of Bon-Tsagaan, central Mongolia. The new discovery expands the record of Cretastenophlebia to the Jiuquan Basin in Albian.
Since the opening of the Sino-Burmese border trade in 1988, the movement of goods and people from both sides has increased rapidly. In 2011, China became Burma's largest trading partner and over half the total volume of goods was accrued in cross-border trade via Yunnan. However, national figures on import-export volumes are derived solely from legal flows, while contraband is largely overlooked. To date, academic studies on contraband have remained insufficient, partly due to the difficulty accessing Burmese border areas, and partly due to the mere challenges in obtaining information about smuggling from those who engage in such activity. This paper, based on multiple fieldwork sites over several years, examines a particular contraband – the smuggling of Chinese motorcycles to Burma on the ‘new’ Burma Road. This shadow economy thrived between 2000 and 2014. While highlighting its economic rationality beyond state control, I attempt to make diachronic and synchronic comparisons by engaging with dialogues within the historical trading mechanism of the mule convoys in the region and also with theories of shadow economies generated from contemporary case studies in other parts of the world. I argue that the formation of this shadow economy is not haphazard but adheres to the ethos of the mule caravan trade, predicated on local knowledge and social networks.
A new species of the Lower Jurassic genus Dorsettia Whalley, 1985 is described from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China, as Dorsettia sinica new species. It provides additional morphological characters for this genus and is the earliest Jurassic dragonfly in China after the end-Triassic extinction. The occurrence of Dorsettia in England and northwestern China indicates that the end-Triassic extinction probably did not have a drastic influence on damsel-dragonflies, or that the dispersal of damsel-dragonflies was relatively quick during the earliest Jurassic.
Let the Paneitz operator P0 be strictly positive on a closed 3-manifold M with a fixed conformal class. It is proved that the solution of a fourth-order Q-curvature flow exists on M for all time and converges smoothly to a metric of constant Q-curvature.