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This study aimed to compare hostility, impulsivity, and behavior inhibition between women with and without premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) during both luteal and follicular phases and to examine whether these variables contribute to irritability and daily functional impairment of PMDD.
PMDD was screened via the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool. A diagnosis of PMDD was confirmed by psychiatric interviewing without 2-month prospective confirmation. Sixty women in the PMDD group and 60 women in the control group completed the Chinese Version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Short Form, Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory, and the Behavior Inhibition System Scale during the luteal and follicular phases.
We found that the PMDD group had significantly higher levels of hostility, dysfunctional impulsivity, and behavioral inhibition than the control group in both luteal and follicular phases. The PMDD group also had more premenstrual aggravation on total hostility, hostility affect, and suppressive hostility than the control group. Higher hostility, dysfunctional impulsivity, and behavior inhibition were associated with more severe irritability and functional impairment of PMDD.
Hostility, impulsivity, and behavior inhibition might contribute to irritability and functional impairment in women with PMDD.
Assessment and interventions based on these factors should be provided for women with PMDD, especially in the luteal phase.
This study was aimed to evaluate the association between Internet addiction and depressive disorder, social phobia and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Taiwanese college students; and examine gender differences in the psychiatric comorbidity of Internet addiction in this student population.
Two hundred sixteen college students (132 males, 84 females) were recruited. Internet addiction, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, social phobia, and adult ADHD of all participants were diagnosed based on psychiatric diagnostic interview.
This study revealed that adult ADHD and depressive disorders were associated with Internet addiction among college students. However, depressive disorders were associated with Internet addiction in the males but not the females.
With these results, it seems reasonable to suggest that effective evaluation of, and treatment for, adult ADHD and depressive disorders is required for college students with Internet addiction.
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