To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The risk of antipsychotic-associated cardiovascular and metabolic events may differ among countries, and limited real-world evidence has been available comparing the corresponding risks among children and young adults. We, therefore, evaluated the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic events in children and young adults receiving antipsychotics.
We conducted a multinational self-controlled case series (SCCS) study and included patients aged 6–30 years old who had both exposure to antipsychotics and study outcomes from four nationwide databases of Taiwan (2004–2012), Korea (2010–2016), Hong Kong (2001–2014) and the UK (1997–2016) that covers a total of approximately 100 million individuals. We investigated three antipsychotics exposure windows (i.e., 90 days pre-exposure, 1–30 days, 30–90 days and 90 + days of exposure). The outcomes were cardiovascular events (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction), or metabolic events (hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia).
We included a total of 48 515 individuals in the SCCS analysis. We found an increased risk of metabolic events only in the risk window with more than 90-day exposure, with a pooled IRR of 1.29 (95% CI 1.20–1.38). The pooled IRR was 0.98 (0.90–1.06) for 1–30 days and 0.88 (0.76–1.02) for 31–90 days. We found no association in any exposure window for cardiovascular events. The pooled IRR was 1.86 (0.74–4.64) for 1–30 days, 1.35 (0.74–2.47) for 31–90 days and 1.29 (0.98–1.70) for 90 + days.
Long-term exposure to antipsychotics was associated with an increased risk of metabolic events but did not trigger cardiovascular events in children and young adults.
Although mature seeds of the monogeneric conifer family Cephalotaxaceae sensu stricto have underdeveloped embryos, no definitive studies have been done to classify dormancy in this family. Our primary purpose was to determine the kind of dormancy in seeds of Cephalotaxus wilsoniana and to put the results into a broad phylogenetic context for gymnosperms. The species is of horticultural and medicinal value, and information is needed on how to propagate it efficiently from seeds. Embryo growth and germination were monitored for seeds at warm, cold and warm plus cold temperatures, and germination was monitored for seeds subjected to: (1) cold → warm → cold → warm; and (2) warm → cold → warm → cold → warm temperature sequences. The effects of gibberellic acids GA3 and GA4 were tested on radicle emergence in ungerminated seeds and on shoot emergence in root-emerged seeds. Germination was promoted by ≥ 36 weeks of warm stratification followed by ≥ 8 weeks of cold stratification, but only if seeds were returned to high temperatures. The underdeveloped embryo must increase in length by >120% before the radicle emerges. Neither GA3 nor GA4 was effective in promoting radicle emergence; however, both plant growth regulators increased rate (but not percentage) of shoot emergence in root-emerged seeds. We conclude that seeds of C. wilsoniana have the deep simple level of morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), C1b-C3-B1b; thus, warm stratification followed by cold stratification and then warm-temperature incubation are required for germination. In gymnosperms, MPD is known in cycads, Ginkgo and now in three families of conifers.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.