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The present study assessed the effects of vegetarian and omnivorous diets on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG and the ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol (TC) by gender.
HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG and HDL-C:TC were compared among three diet groups (vegan, ovo-lacto vegetarian and omnivorous). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine factors significantly and independently associated with vegetarian status and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles for the diet groups.
A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Taiwanese Survey on the Prevalence of Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Hypertension (TwSHHH).
The study comprised included 3257 men and 3551 women.
After adjusting for confounders, vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets lowered LDL-C levels (β=−10·98, P=0·005 and β=−7·12, P=0·025, respectively) in men compared with omnivorous diet. There was a significant association between HDL-C and vegan diet (β=−6·53, P=0·004). In females, the β values of HDL-C, TAG and HDL-C:TC were −5·72 (P<0·0001), 16·51 (P=0·011) and −0·02 (P=0·012) for vegan diet, and −4·86 (P=0·002), 15·09 (P=0·008) and −0·01 (P=0·026) for ovo-lacto vegetarian diet, when compared with omnivorous diet.
Vegan diet was associated with lower HDL-C concentrations in both males and females. Because the ovo-lacto vegetarian diet was effective in lowering LDL-C, it may be more appropriate for males.
Ink jet technology is applied to the industry application of CPU cooling in this study. The PZT actuated micro-cooling device which generating the micro-scale liquid droplet is used in the CPU cooling of desktop and laptop PCs. It consists the advantages of long lifetime of operation, simple and easily manufactured of the structure with PZT actuator. Since the high latent heat transfer rate, 2260 J/g, of water droplet for the liquid-vapor phase change cooling system, it removes heat from the CPU surface effectively for over 100 W. In order to design an efficient cooling device, it is important to study the PZT material property varies after the laser cutting process and the dimensional effects of PZT actuator on the nozzle plate vibration mode. The frequency and amplitude of the voltage used to energize the PZT transducer are also important parameters that should be properly controlled in order to achieve the optimal liquid breakup conditions. It also reveals the low noise and power consumption in the CPU cooling system with some appropriate operational conditions.
The manipulator with a large degree of
redundancy is useful for realizing multiple tasks such as maneuvering
the robotic arms in the constrained workspace, e.g. the task
of maneuvering the end-effector of the manipulator along a pre-specified
path into a window. This paper presents an on-line technique
based on a posture generation rule to compute a null-space
joint velocity vector in a singularity-robust redundancy resolution method. This
rule suggests that the end of each link has to
track an implicit trajectory that is indirectly resulted from the
constraint imposed on tracking motion of the end-effector. A proper
posture can be determined by sequentially optimizing an objective function
integrating multiple criteria of the orientation of each link from
the end-effector toward the base link as the secondary task
for redundancy resolution, by assuming one end of the link
is clamped. The criteria flexibly incorporate obstacle avoidance, joint limits,
preference of posture in tracking, and connection of posture to
realize a compromise between the primary and secondary tasks. Furthermore,
computational demanding of the posture is reduced due to the
sequential link-by-link computation feature. Simulations show the effectiveness and flexibility
of the proposed method in generating proper postures for the
collision avoidance and the joint limits as a singularity-robust null-space
projection vector in maneuvering redundant robots within constrained workspaces.
This paper addresses the vibratory mechanics associated with frequency discrimination of basilar membrane within the cochlear of the inner ear. Periodic excitation is provided to the oval window, which results in generation of waves within the fluid-filled cochlear traveling towards the apex. These waves interact with the compliant basilar membrane structure causing its vibratory motion. Solution procedure of the fluid/structure model consists of a two-step process. First, a finite element calculation (ANSYS) solves for the membrane vibration with an initial harmonic pressure distribution. Second, a control volume analysis links the resultant vibratory motion with the fluid pressure acting on the basilar membrane, thus a pressure feedback loop is accomplished. Results show that dominant factors affecting vibratory characteristics of the basilar membrane are its structural geometry and attenuation of pressure wave as it travels away from the oval window. Calculations clearly capture the designed function of the basilar membrane, principally its frequency discrimination behavior.
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