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More than one million runners have joined the marathon games since 2007 in Taiwan. There were over 150 marathon games held in Taiwan in 2018. The increase rate was 21% as compared to that of 2014. The medical encounter rate was 1.33% in 2015 and increased to 1.41% in 2017. The most common type of injury was muscle spasm. The second most common was abrasion due to falls. The treatment for muscle spasm was RICE only. Cardiac arrest of marathon runners was reported occasionally and time is critical for rescue.
To shorten the rescue time of the runners in an emergency. Base on the prodromal research, BLE communication technology is further used to improve the rescue positioning communication technology in the marathon.
After rescue notification devices have been set up in each 0.5 km on the runway of the marathon, the runner can send a rescue signal through the rescue notification devices in case of emergency. The rescue signal, periodically advertisement SN# with rescue mark, of the runner can be precisely located and the rescue can be started very soon.
In the simulation, the rescue signal can be located in 7.5 minutes, fastest in 3 seconds. The precision rate of timing is ±160ms/6σ that under IAAF accuracy requirement. The location error is less than 20 meters, and the rescue time can be shortened to one half as before.
The rescue time of runner is correlated with the quality of marathon EMS. It is critical to the runner, especially in cardiac arrest. By using BLE communication devices, the runner can be located faster and more precisely. As rescue time shortened, CPR & AED can be given sooner. The quality of marathon EMS will be improved substantially.
We developed novel and polymorphic microsatellite primers for Spathoglottis plicata, a tropical and subtropical terrestrial orchid, to investigate the genetic patterns and population structure among wild populations, and also to identify the varieties and hybrids of S. plicata in horticultural industry. The 12 novel microsatellites from S. plicata were developed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based isolation of microsatellite arrays. These markers that were successfully PCR amplified exhibited polymorphisms in S. plicata. The number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values across loci ranged from 2.000 to 8.000, 0.000 to 0.756, 0.208 to 0.813 and 0.405 to 0.805 in total populations, respectively. The newly developed microsatellite markers exhibited variation in S. plicata. These markers can be used as a tool to further investigate the genetic diversity, conservation genetics and variety/hybrid identification of S. plicata.
Sedative–hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan.
A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders. Sedatives and hypnotics use was determined via both self-reporting and prescription records. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate associations between sedative–hypnotic use and demographic and health status.
Among the 3,978 participants aged 65 years and over, the rate of sedative–hypnotic use was 19.7% (n = 785). 4.5% (n = 35) of users reported sedative–hypnotic use without a doctor's prescription. Several sociodemographic characteristics were positively associated with sedative and hypnotic use, including older age, female gender, higher education level, married status, unemployment, and current alcohol consumption. Comorbid chronic and cardiovascular diseases, mental illness, depression, pain, and sleep problems also increased the likelihood of sedative–hypnotic use.
This study is one of the largest pioneer studies to date to survey sedatives–hypnotics use among community-dwelling elderly. One in five community-dwelling older adults reported sedative–hypnotic drugs use in Taiwan, and about 5% of sedative and/or hypnotics usage was without a doctor's prescription. Findings could be helpful for drug-use safety interventions to identify target geriatric patients who are in general at higher risk of downstream harm associated with sedative–hypnotic use in geriatric patients.
This study investigated how cross-functional teams can influence their business model innovation and firm performance through team learning, consisting of multiple modes of within-team, cross-team, and market learning. Using a matched dyadic data set from a study of 330 cross-functional team members and their supervisors sampled from 165 electronics and information industries in China, the empirical results clearly indicate that within-team, cross-team, and market learning can improve business model innovation and firm performance. The results of the mediating model show how the business model innovation mediates the relationship between team learning and firm performance.
The phase evolution, nucleation, and sintered ceramics of barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) powder prepared by solid-state synthesis with an ultrafine starting material (27 m2/g of BaCO3 and 190 m2/g of TiO2) were investigated in this study. Surface diffusion between BaCO3 and TiO2 was observed at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C by transmission electron microscopy. Rapid nucleation of the BT and cubic BT phases was observed at 500 °C by x-ray diffraction. The derivative thermogravimetry curve clearly shows a single step of BT formation at 600 °C. In short, pure BT particles with an average particle size of 250 nm and high tetragonality were prepared by solid-state synthesis, which produced X7R ceramics with high dielectric permittivity, high insulation resistance, and a clear core–shell structure.
To investigate the potential reservoir and mode of transmission of pandrug-resistant (PDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in a 7-day-old neonate who developed PDR A. baumannii bacteremia that was presumed to be the iceberg of a potential outbreak.
Outbreak investigation based on a program of prospective hospital-wide surveillance for nosocomial infection.
A 24-bed neonatal intensive care unit in a 2,200-bed major teaching hospital in Taiwan that provides care for critically ill neonates born in this hospital and those transferred from other hospitals.
Samples from 33 healthcare workers' hands and 40 samples from the environment were cultured. Surveillance cultures of anal swab specimens and sputum samples were performed for neonates on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and every 2 weeks until discharge. The PDR A. baumannii isolates, defined as isolates resistant to all currently available systemic antimicrobials except polymyxin B, were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Control measures consisted of implementing contact isolation, reinforcing hand hygiene adherence, cohorting of nurses, and environmental cleaning.
One culture of an environmental sample and no cultures of samples from healthcare workers' hands grew PDR A. baumannii. The positive culture result involved a sample obtained from a ventilation tube used by the index patient. During the following 2 months, active surveillance identified PDR A. baumannii in 8 additional neonates, and isolates from 7 had the same electrokaryotype. Of the 9 neonates colonized or infected with PDR A. baumannii, 1 died from an unrelated condition. Reinforcement of infection control measures resulted in 100% adherence to proper hand hygiene protocol. The outbreak was stopped without compromising patient care.
In the absence of environmental contamination, transient hand carriage by personnel who cared for neonates colonized or infected with PDR A. baumannii was suspected to be the mode of transmission. Vigilance, prompt intervention and strict adherence to hand hygiene protocol were the key factors that led to the successful control of this outbreak. Active surveillance appears to be an effective measure to identify potential transmitters and reservoirs of PDR A. baumannii.
The impact of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was enormous, but few studies have focused on the infectious and general health status of healthcare workers (HCWs) who treated patients with SARS.
We prospectively evaluated the general health status of HCWs during the SARS epidemic.The Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 Survey was given to all HCWs immediately after caring for patients with SARS and 4 weeks after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts. Tests for detection of SARS Coronavirus antibody were performed for HCWs at these 2 time points and for control subjects during the SARS epidemic.
Tertiary care referral center in Taipei, Taiwan.
Ninety SARS-care task force members (SARS HCWs) and 82 control subjects.
All serum specimens tested negative for SARS antibody. Survey scores for SARS HCWs immediately after care were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < .05 by the t test) in 6 categories. Vitality, social functioning, and mental health immediately after care and vitality and mental health after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts were among the worst subscales. The social functioning, role emotional, and role physical subscales significantly improved after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts (P < .05, by paired t test). The length of contact time (mean number of contact-hours per day) with patients with SARS was associated with some subscales (role emotional, role physical, and mental health) to a mild extent. The total number of contact-hours with symptomatic patients with SARS was a borderline predictor (adjusted R2 = 0.069; P = .038) of mental health score.
The impact of the SARS outbreak on SARS HCWs was significant in many dimensions of general health. The vitality and mental health status of SARS HCWs 1 month after self-quarantine and off-duty shifts remained inferior to those of the control group.
Ink jet technology is applied to the industry application of CPU cooling in this study. The PZT actuated micro-cooling device which generating the micro-scale liquid droplet is used in the CPU cooling of desktop and laptop PCs. It consists the advantages of long lifetime of operation, simple and easily manufactured of the structure with PZT actuator. Since the high latent heat transfer rate, 2260 J/g, of water droplet for the liquid-vapor phase change cooling system, it removes heat from the CPU surface effectively for over 100 W. In order to design an efficient cooling device, it is important to study the PZT material property varies after the laser cutting process and the dimensional effects of PZT actuator on the nozzle plate vibration mode. The frequency and amplitude of the voltage used to energize the PZT transducer are also important parameters that should be properly controlled in order to achieve the optimal liquid breakup conditions. It also reveals the low noise and power consumption in the CPU cooling system with some appropriate operational conditions.
Breakdown characteristics of ultra-thin gate oxides caused by plasma charging were studied in this work. It is observed that as oxide thickness is scaled down to 4 nm, some traditional monitor parameters may lose their sensitivity for detecting oxide degradation induced by plasma charging damage, due to insignificant trap generation. Even the gate leakage current, although sensitive for 4 nm oxide, may no longer be sensitive enough for even thinner oxide (e.g., 2.6 nm), due to the existence of large tunneling current. Moreover, several soft-breakdown events were found to occur in ultrathin oxide before the final onset of a catastrophic hard-breakdown. Finally, an equivalent local oxide thickness is calculated using local oxide thinning model to estimate the stepwise increase of gate current after soft-breakdown event.
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