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To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
It is controversial to observe or close symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula in infants. We herein describe a medium-sized symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula that underwent rapid spontaneous closure in an infant aged <3 months.
Nanosized lithium manganate powders are successfully synthesized via a newly developed reverse-microemulsion (RμE) process. Monophasic LiMn2O4 powders are obtained after calcining the precursor powders at 700°C. The particle size of the spinel compound significantly depends on the concentration of the aqueous phase. Increasing the water-to-oil volume ratio results in an increase in the particle size. While the aqueous phase is equal to 0.5 M, the size of the obtained LiMn2O4 powder is around 60-70 nm. It is found that the specific capacity of nanosized LiMn2O4 particles is greater than that of submicron particles. The large surface area of ultrafine particles is considered to facilitate the intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions during the cycling test.
Synthesis of (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)1-yTiyO3 (y=0 and 0.1; PCFN and PCFNT) ceramics by a reaction-sintering process was investigated. The mixture of raw materials was pressed and sintered into ceramics without any calcination stage involved. The density 5.88g/cm3 (91.6% of the theoretical value) is reached at 1270°C for 2 h soak time in PCFN. Densification increased as B-site was substituted by 10% Ti and a density value 6.21g/cm3 (98.1% of theoretical value) was obtained after 2 h sintering at 1270°C. Grains are of 4.6–19.3μm in PCFN and 2.5–16.5μm in PCFNT at 1150–1270°C. Grain growth was retarded as the B-site was substituted by 10% Ti in PCFN ceramics.