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Multidimensional instabilities always develop with time during the process of radiation pressure acceleration, and are detrimental to the generation of monoenergetic proton beams. In this paper, a sharp-front laser is proposed to irradiate a triple-layer target (the proton layer is set between two carbon ion layers) and studied in theory and simulations. It is found that the thin proton layer can be accelerated once to hundreds of MeV with monoenergetic spectra only during the hole-boring (HB) stage. The carbon ions move behind the proton layer in the light-sail (LS) stage, which can shield any further interaction between the rear part of the laser and the proton layer. In this way, proton beam instabilities can be reduced to a certain extent during the entire acceleration process. It is hoped such a mechanism can provide a feasible way to improve the beam quality for proton therapy and other applications.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
To explore the relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with obesity and metabolic parameters in US children.
Cross-sectional analysis. We evaluated the associations between serum 25(OH)D and multiple measurements of adiposity, serum lipid concentrations, fasting glucose and insulin resistance in children aged 6–18 years with adjustments for multiple covariates.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006.
A nationally representative sample of 6311 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years.
Among US children and adolescents, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been especially high in older children, girls and the non-Hispanic Black population. Higher odds of obesity were found at a 25(OH)D concentration of <30 nmol/l (deficiency) than at >50 nmol/l under both criteria for obesity in children (OR = 3·27, Ptrend ≤ 0.001). Moreover, increased odds of having abnormal HDL-cholesterol (OR = 1·71, Ptrend ≤ 0.001) and impaired insulin resistance (OR = 4·15, Ptrend ≤ 0·001) were found for children deficient in 25(OH)D compared with those with normal 25(OH)D concentrations. When the children and adolescents were stratified by gender, we found stronger associations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and both HDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance in girls. No association of 25(OH)D with any other metabolic parameter was found.
Our results suggest a potential harmful association between low serum 25(OH)D concentration and the risk of obesity among children. However, the underlying mechanisms require further investigation.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
Energy chirp compensation of the electron bunch (e-bunch) in a laser wakefield accelerator, which is caused by the phase space rotation in the gradient wakefield, has been applied in many schemes for low energy spread e-bunch generation. We report the experimental observation of energy chirp compensation of the e-bunch in a nonlinear laser wakefield accelerator with a negligible beam loading effect. By adjusting the acceleration length using a wedge-roof block, the chirp compensation of the accelerated e-bunch was observed via an electron spectrometer. Apart from this, some significant parameters for the compensation process, such as the longitudinal dispersion and wakefield slope at the bunch position, were also estimated. A detailed comparison between experiment and simulation shows good agreement of the wakefield and bunch parameters. These results give a clear demonstration of the longitudinal characteristics of the wakefield in a plasma and the bunch dynamics, which are important for better control of a compact laser wakefield accelerator.
Health system reform is considered a tough issue worldwide. Great efforts have been made toward health system building and strengthening. However, it is still unclear which health system is appropriate for different countries. This study aimed to systematically compare the characteristics of the establishment periods between eighty-eight counties of National Health Service (NHS) and Social Health Insurance (SHI).
Forty-eight NHS countries and forty SHI countries with data availability were selected. The establishment years of current health systems and other eighteen indicators in economics, society, population and health during establishment periods were collected. Comparison between NHS and SHI was conducted by descriptive analysis of every indicator.
Most NHS countries were established during the cold war, while SHI had been set up since the cold war ended. The median of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization rate and aging rate of SHI were USD 1535 in current dollars, 58.2 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively; compared with USD 1387, 41.2 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively of NHS. NHS countries had a smaller total population, lower mortality rate and elderly dependency ratio, while the birth rate and children's dependency ratio were higher. SHI countries showed a higher life expectancy and lower mortality rate in infants and children. NHS countries spent less in total health expenditure and a lower proportion of GDP. The median health expenditure per capita of SHI and NHS were USD 188 and USD 131 in current dollars, respectively. There was little difference among maternal mortality rates, and public and private health expenditure proportions.
NHS and SHI countries had different characteristics during the health system establishment periods. NHS was established earlier than SHI overall, so that SHI revealed higher levels in economic and social development. Health outcomes of NHS countries were slightly lower than SHI ones, while health expenditure was more in SHI countries. Specific social, economic, demographic and health conditions should be considered when countries are building their own health systems.
Excessive worry is a defining feature of generalized anxiety disorder and is present in a wide range of other psychiatric conditions. Therefore, individualized predictions of worry propensity could be highly relevant in clinical practice, with respect to the assessment of worry symptom severity at the individual level.
We applied a multivariate machine learning approach to predict dispositional worry based on microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) tracts.
We demonstrated that the machine learning model was able to decode individual dispositional worry scores from microstructural properties in widely distributed WM tracts (mean absolute error = 10.46, p < 0.001; root mean squared error = 12.82, p < 0.001; prediction R2 = 0.17, p < 0.001). WM tracts that contributed to worry prediction included the posterior limb of internal capsule, anterior corona radiate, and cerebral peduncle, as well as the corticolimbic pathways (e.g. uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix) already known to be critical for emotion processing and regulation.
The current work thus elucidates potential neuromarkers for clinical assessment of worry symptoms across a wide range of psychiatric disorders. In addition, the identification of widely distributed pathways underlying worry propensity serves to better improve the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with worry.
Multi-pass warm rolling with falling temperature was proposed and investigated to obtain AZ31 Mg alloy sheets with a fine-grained microstructure. The results indicated that the grain microstructure of AZ31 alloy sheets was successfully refined from 22.1 to 4.5 μm after multi-pass warm rolling with falling temperature and annealing. Compared to the as-received sheet, the multi-pass warm rolled sheets in annealed condition exhibited weaker (0001) basal texture intensity, which resulted in the significantly increased Schmid factor of 〈a〉 basal slip. After multi-pass warm rolling with falling temperature, the rolled sheets in annealed condition also exhibited much better mechanical properties, e.g., higher tensile strength, larger fracture elongation, and higher Erichsen value, especially the IE of 8-pass warm rolled sheet in annealed condition was significantly increased by ∼33% under the same thickness, which could be attributed to the refined grain microstructure and the weakened basal texture.
The response of soil microbial communities to soil quality changes is a sensitive indicator of soil ecosystem health. The current work investigated soil microbial communities under different fertilization treatments in a 31-year experiment using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The experiment consisted of five fertilization treatments: without fertilizer input (CK), chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), low manure rate and chemical fertilizer (LOM), and high manure rate and chemical fertilizer (HOM). Soil samples were collected from the plough layer and results indicated that the content of PLFAs were increased in all fertilization treatments compared with the control. The iC15:0 fatty acids increased significantly in MF treatment but decreased in RF, LOM and HOM, while aC15:0 fatty acids increased in these three treatments. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to determine factors defining soil microbial community structure using the 21 PLFAs detected in all treatments: the first and second PCs explained 89.8% of the total variance. All unsaturated and cyclopropyl PLFAs except C12:0 and C15:0 were highly weighted on the first PC. The first and second PC also explained 87.1% of the total variance among all fertilization treatments. There was no difference in the first and second PC between RF and HOM treatments. The results indicated that long-term combined application of straw residue or organic manure with chemical fertilizer practices improved soil microbial community structure more than the mineral fertilizer treatment in double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is transmitted to humans mainly by rodents and this transmission could be easily influenced by meteorological factors. Given the long-term changes in climate associated with global climate change, it is important to better identify the effects of meteorological factors of HFRS in epidemic areas. Shandong province is one of the most seriously suffered provinces of HFRS in China. Daily HFRS data and meteorological data from 2007 to 2012 in Shandong province were applied. Quasi-Poisson regression with the distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the influences of mean temperature and Diurnal temperature range (DTR) on HFRS by sex, adjusting for the effects of relative humidity, precipitation, day-of-the-week, long-term trends and seasonality. A total of 6707 HFRS cases were reported in our study. The two peaks of HFRS were from March to June and from October to December, particularly, the latter peak in 2012. The estimated effects of mean temperature and DTR on HFRS were non-linear. The immediate and strong effect of low temperature and high DTR on HFRS was found. The lowest temperature −8.86°C at lag 0 days indicated the largest related relative risk (RRs) with the reference (14.85 °C), respectively, 1.46 (95% CI 1.11–1.90) for total cases, 1.33 (95% CI 1.00–1.78) for the males and 1.76 (95% CI 1.12–2.79) for the females. Highest DTR was associated with a higher risk on HFRS, the largest RRs (95% CI) were obtained when DTR = 15.97 °C with a reference at 8.62 °C, with 1.26 (0.96–1.64) for total cases and 1.52 (0.97–2.38) for the female at lag 0 days, 1.22 (1.05–1.41) for the male at lag 5 days. Non-linear lag effects of mean temperature and DTR on HFRS were identified and there were slight differences for different sexes.
Chinese jiaotou is an economically important crop that is widely cultivated in East Asia. The lack of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been a major obstacle for genetic studies of this crop. In the present study, SSR markers were developed for Chinese jiaotou on a large scale, based on the crop's transcriptome assembled de novo by a previous study. A search for SSR loci in the transcriptome's expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed 2157 SSRs, of which primer pairs could be developed for 1494. Among these resulting SSRs, trinucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type, with GAA/TTC motifs occurring most frequently. Analysing the annotated function of SSR-containing ESTs revealed that they enriched into the GO categories involved in transcription regulation, oxidation–reduction, transport, etc. The quality and transferability of these markers were also assessed using 100 randomly selected EST–SSRs, and the result showed that these markers were of good quality and possessed high cross-species transferability. In addition, the developed SSR markers were used to analyse the genetic diversity of 19 cultivated and four wild accessions, resulting in three distinct groups, cluster I, II and III. Interestingly, all four wild accessions were assigned to cluster III, and two local varieties from northern Hunan, China, were closely related to the wild genotypes. These results provide new insights into the origin of Chinese jiaotou. The EST–SSRs developed herein represent the first large-scale development of SSR markers in Chinese jiaotou, and they can be widely used for genetic studies of the crop.
Let X and Y be two independent and nonnegative random variables with corresponding distributions F and G. Denote by H the distribution of the product XY, called the product convolution of F and G. Cline and Samorodnitsky (1994) proposed sufficient conditions for H to be subexponential, given the subexponentiality of F. Relying on a related result of Tang (2008) on the long-tail of the product convolution, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the subexponentiality of H, given that of F. We also study the reverse problem and obtain sufficient conditions for the subexponentiality of F, given that of H. Finally, we apply the obtained results to the asymptotic study of the ruin probability in a discrete-time insurance risk model with stochastic returns.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT–ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON–ETEC, ANT–ZnO–ETEC and LY–ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections. Piglets fed ANT–ZnO diet had the highest average daily gain and average daily feed intake (P<0·05) during the 1st week, but ADG of piglets fed the ANT–ZnO diet was similar as piglets fed LY diet during the second week. Piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC had markedly lower diarrhoea score (P<0·05) than piglets with CON–ETEC during the 24 h after ETEC challenge. Relative to piglets with CON, the counts of E. coli, urinary ratio of lactulose to mannitol, plasma IL-6 concentration, mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes in ileum and mesenteric lymph node tissues were increased (P<0·05), whereas the villous height of jejunum and relative protein expression of ileum claudin-1 were decreased (P<0·05) in piglets with CON–ETEC; however, these parameters did not markedly change in piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC. In summary, dietary LY supplementation could alleviate the severity of diarrhoea in piglets with ETEC, which may be associated with the improved permeability, innate immunity and bacterial profile.
High concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in cows’ blood caused by ketosis are associated with inflammatory states. We hypothesised that ketosis in postparturient dairy cows would result in altered levels on inflammation-related proteins not only in plasma but also in the milk fat globule membranes (MFGM). Thirty cows were selected from a dairy farm in Heilongjiang, China. Inflammatory milk fat globule membrane proteins were detected using ELISA kits, and a fully automatic biochemical analyser was used to measure the concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, glucose (GLU) and triglyceride (TG) in plasma. MFGM protein from milk of ketotic cows contained significantly different concentrations of acute-phase response proteins (complement C3 (C3), prothrombin (F2), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (ORM1), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), complement C9 (C9), complement regulatory protein variant 4 (CD46)) in comparison with milk from non-ketotic cows. Blood concentrations of C3, complement C9 (C9), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), MFGM C3, monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 (CD14) and ORM1 levels were correlated with energy balance. ITIH4 and CD46 increased, and AHSG and ORM1 decreased before the onset of ketosis. These biomarkers offer potential as predictors and monitors of ketosis in at-risk cows.
Complex glacier motion in the Grove Mountains region, Antarctica, is measured using four-pass differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR). The components of the motion vector field are resolved using a 44 day-separation Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) InSAR pair and a European Remote-sensing Satellite-1/-2 (ERS-1/-2) tandem InSAR pair. The 44 day temporal baseline provides the sensitivity required to observe the range of ice motion (around 8–10ma–1), and the 1 day short baseline provides the best choice for glacier digital elevation model reconstruction. It is remarkable that the scattering field of the JERS-1 pair remained coherent over the long time interval and the interferometric fringes are clear. The overall ice flow is from east to west, downslope and towards Lambert Glacier. The regional flow is obstructed by nunataks extending north–south, with two wide gaps. Two narrow glaciers flow past the nunataks and rejoin each other at the downstream end. Regional morphology, and the resolved flow in the Grove Mountains area, suggests that ice flow is channeled throughout this eastern flank of Lambert Glacier.
With the use of temporal derivative of flux function, a two-stage temporal discretization has been recently proposed in the design of fourth-order schemes based on the generalized Riemann problem (GRP)  and gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) . In this paper, the fourth-order gas-kinetic scheme will be extended to solve the compressible multicomponent flow equations, where the two-stage temporal discretization and fifth-order WENO reconstruction will be used in the construction of the scheme. Based on the simplified two-species BGK model , the coupled Euler equations for individual species will be solved. Each component has its individual gas distribution function and the equilibrium states for each component are coupled by the physical requirements of total momentum and energy conservation in particle collisions. The second-order flux function is used to achieve the fourth-order temporal accuracy, and the robustness is as good as the second-order schemes. At the same time, the source terms, such as the gravitational force and the chemical reaction, will be explicitly included in the two-stage temporal discretization through their temporal derivatives. Many numerical tests from the shock-bubble interaction to ZND detonative waves are presented to validate the current approach.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.