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Oscillatory flow around a cluster of four circular cylinders in a diamond arrangement is investigated using two-dimensional direct numerical simulation over Keulegan–Carpenter numbers (KC) ranging from 4 to 12 and Reynolds numbers (Re) from 40 to 230 at four gap-to-diameter ratios (G) of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4. Three types of flows, namely synchronous, quasi-periodic and desynchronized flows (along with 14 flow regimes) are mapped out in the (G, KC, Re)-parameter space. The observed flow characteristics around four cylinders in a diamond arrangement show a few unique features that are absent in the flow around four cylinders in a square arrangement reported by Tong et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 769, 2015, pp. 298–336). These include (i) the dominance of flow around the cluster-scale structure at
and 1, (ii) a substantial reduction of regime D flows in the regime maps, (iii) new quasi-periodic (phase trapping)
and 1) and period-doubling
) and most noteworthily (iv) abnormal behaviours at (
) (referred to as holes hereafter) such as the appearance of spatio-temporal synchronized flows in an area surrounded by a single type of synchronized flow in the regime map (
). The mode competition between the cluster-scale and cylinder-scale flows is identified as the key flow mechanism responsible for those unique flow features, with the support of evidence derived from quantitative analysis. Phase dynamics is introduced for the first time in bluff-body flows, to the best knowledge of the authors, to quantitatively interpret the flow response (e.g. quasi-periodic flow features) around the cluster. It is instrumental in revealing the nature of regime
flows where the cluster-scale flow features are largely synchronized with the forcing of incoming oscillatory flow (phase trapping) but are modulated by localized flow features.
Severe phase coarsening and separation in Sn–Bi alloys have brought increasing reliability concern in microelectronic packages. In this study, a phase field model is developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and evaluate the change in macroscopic physical properties of the flip chip Cu/Sn58Bi/Cu joint under the conditions of isothermal aging, as well as the coupled loads of elastic stress and electric current stressing. Results show that large-sized Bi-rich phase particles grow up at the expense of small-sized ones. Under the coupled loads, Bi atoms migrate along the electron flow direction, consequently Bi-rich phase segregates to form a Bi-rich phase layer at the anode. The current crowding ratio in the solder decreases rapidly first and then fluctuates slightly with time. Current density and von Mises stress exhibit inhomogeneous distribution, and both of them are higher in the Sn-rich phase than in the Bi-rich phase. Electric current transfers through the Sn-rich phase and detours the Bi-rich phase. As time proceeds, the resistance of the solder joint increases, and the average von Mises stress of the solder joint decreases. The Bi-rich phase coarsens much faster under the coupled loads than under the conditions of isothermal aging.
Instabilities and flow characteristics in the far wake of a circular cylinder are examined through direct numerical simulations. The transitions to the two-layered and secondary vortex streets are quantified by a new method based on the time-averaged transverse velocity field. Two processes for the transition to the secondary vortex street are observed: (i) the merging of two same-sign vortices over a range of low Reynolds numbers (
) between 200 and 300, and (ii) the pairing of two opposite-sign vortices, followed by the merging of the paired vortices into subsequent vortices, over a range of
between 400 and 1000. Single vortices may be generated between the merging cycles due to mismatch of the vortices. The irregular merging process results in flow irregularity and an additional frequency signal
(in addition to the primary vortex shedding frequency
) in the two-layered and secondary vortex streets. In particular, a gradual energy transfer from
with distance downstream is observed in the two-layered vortex street prior to the merging. The frequency spectra of
are broad-band for
–300 but become increasingly sharp-peaked with increasing
because the vortex merging process becomes increasingly regular. The ratio of the sharp-peaked frequencies
is equal to the ratio of the numbers of vortices observed after and before the merging. The general conclusions drawn from a circular cylinder are expected to be applicable to other bluff bodies.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been evolved as a cost-effective technique for highly precise maritime positioning. For a long period, maritime PPP technology has mainly relied on the Global Positioning System (GPS). With the revitalisation of GLONASS and the emerging BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS), it is now feasible to investigate real-time navigation performance of multi-constellation maritime PPP with GPS, BDS and GLONASS. In this contribution, we focus on maritime PPP performance using real world maritime kinematic data and real-time satellite correction products. The results show that BDS has lower position accuracy and slower convergence time than GPS. The BDS and GPS combination has the best performance among the dual-constellation configurations. Meanwhile, the integration of BDS, GLONASS and GPS significantly improves the position accuracy and the convergence time. Some outliers in the single constellation configuration can be mitigated when multi-constellation observations are utilised.
To investigate the morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique computed tomography images.
The computed tomography temporal bone scans of 112 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Midpoint and opercular measurements were performed using axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images. Morphometric analyses were also conducted. The vestibular aqueduct sizes on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images were compared.
At the midpoint, the mean (± standard deviation) vestibular aqueduct measured 0.61 ± 0.23 mm, 0.74 ± 0.27 mm and 0.82 ± 0.38 mm on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the vestibular aqueduct measured 0.91 ± 0.30 mm, 1.11 ± 0.45 mm and 1.66 ± 1.07 mm on the respective images. The co-efficients of variation of the vestibular aqueduct measured at the midpoint were 37.4 per cent, 36.5 per cent and 47.5 per cent on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the measurements were 33.0 per cent, 40.5 per cent and 64.5 per cent. Regarding morphology, the vestibular aqueduct was fissured (33.5 per cent), tubular (64.3 per cent) or invisible (2.2 per cent).
The morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct were highly variable among axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images.
This paper presents a numerical investigation of oscillatory flow around a circular cylinder that is placed in proximity to a plane boundary that is parallel to the cylinder axis. The onset and development of the Honji instability are studied over a range of Stokes numbers (
) and gap-to-diameter ratios (
) at a fixed Keulegan–Carpenter number (
). Four flow regimes are identified in the (
)-plane: (I) featureless two-dimensional flow, (II) stable Honji vortex, (III) unstable Honji vortex and (IV) chaotic flow. As
, the critical Stokes number
for the onset of the Honji instability follows two side-by-side convex functions, peaking at the connection point of
and reaching troughs at
and 0.375. The Honji instability is always initiated on the gap side of the cylinder surface for
$0.375\leqslant e/D\leqslant 2$
and occurs only on the top side for
. The location for the initiation of the Honji instability switches from the gap side to the top side of the cylinder surface for
. No Honji instability is observed at
, where the flow three-dimensionality is developed through a different flow mechanism. Consistently, the three-dimensional kinetic energy of the flow, which represents a measure of the strength of flow three-dimensionality, varies with
in a trend opposite to that of
. Three physical mechanisms are identified as being responsible for the observed variation trend of
and for various flow phenomena, which are the blockage effect induced by the geometry setting, the existence of the Stokes layer on the plane boundary and the favourable pressure gradient in the flow direction over the gap between the cylinder and the plane surface.
Propofol is a intravenous anaesthetic most commonly used in ultrasound oocyte retrieval. We studied if the use of propofol had an effect on mouse oocyte maturation, pregnancy, childbirth and progeny and investigated the correlation between propofol side effects and reproductive performance in mice. There was no statistical difference in mating, pregnancy, childbirth, litter size, the number of stillbirths and survival between each group (P>0.05). Propofol also had no effect on polar body extrusion in oocyte maturation as well as on pronucleus formation and, subsequently, early embryo development (P>0.05). An increased concentration of propofol had no effect on this result, although propofol at more than 0.01 mg/ml reduced polar body extrusion. Different concentrations of propofol had no effect on oocyte culture in vitro, pronucleus formation and early embryo development.