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Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioural addictions. One of the key features of addiction is the excessive exposure to addictive objectives (e.g. drugs) reduces the sensitivity of the brain reward system to daily rewards (e.g. money). This is thought to be mediated via the signals expressed as dopaminergic reward prediction error (RPE). Emerging evidence highlights blunted RPE signals in drug addictions. However, no study has examined whether IGD also involves alterations in RPE signals that are observed in other types of addictions.
To fill this gap, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 45 IGD and 42 healthy controls (HCs) during a reward-related prediction-error task and utilised a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to characterise the underlying neural correlates of RPE and related functional connectivity.
Relative to HCs, IGD individuals showed impaired reinforcement learning, blunted RPE signals in multiple regions of the brain reward system, including the right caudate, left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Moreover, the PPI analysis revealed a pattern of hyperconnectivity between the right caudate, right putamen, bilateral DLPFC, and right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in the IGD group. Finally, linear regression suggested that the connection between the right DLPFC and right dACC could significantly predict the variation of RPE signals in the left OFC.
These results highlight disrupted RPE signalling and hyperconnectivity between regions of the brain reward system in IGD. Reinforcement learning deficits may be crucial underlying characteristics of IGD pathophysiology.
The ablation and acceleration of diamond-like high-density carbon foils irradiated by thermal X-ray radiations are investigated with radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The time-dependent front of the ablation wave is given numerically for radiation temperatures in the range of 100–300 eV. The mass ablation rates and ablation pressures can be derived or implied from the coordinates of ablation fronts, which agree well with reported experiment results of high-density carbon with radiation temperatures Trad in the range of 160–260 eV. It is also found that the
scaling law for ablation rates does not apply to Trad above 260 eV. The trajectories of targets and hydrodynamic efficiencies for different target thicknesses can be derived from the coordinates of ablation fronts using a rocket model and the results agree well with simulations. The peak hydrodynamic efficiencies of the acceleration process are investigated for different foil thicknesses and radiation temperatures. Higher radiation temperatures and target thicknesses result in higher hydrodynamic efficiencies. The simulation results are useful for the design of fusion capsules.
One of the leading challenges in chemical sciences is the separation of complex mixtures. This is of vital importance for areas such as commodity chemical generation, where there is a need for the generation of high-purity chemical streams. Due to this, there has been a strong push toward the investigation of new materials capable of achieving chemoselective separation, with self-assembled materials having shown a great deal of promise for such separations. Many self-assembled materials are desirable candidates due to their low-cost synthesis, structural self-regulation, tunable properties, and an overall ease of composite material preparation. In this article, we aim to introduce examples of novel self-assembled materials and their practical usage in chemical separations. The specific approaches to fabricate these materials, as well as the strengths and shortcomings associated with their structures, will also be described. The strategies presented here will emphasize the production and employment of nonconventional self-assembled materials that exhibit a high potential for the advancement of the science of chemical separations.
A miniaturized high-isolation quadplexer with wide upper-stopband based on open and short stub-loaded multimode-resonator is proposed in this paper. Based on the theory of multimode-resonator and stepped impedance resonator (SIR), the compact quadplexer is designed by using multimode-resonator and SIR. In order to further miniaturize the size of the circuit, the multimode resonator is employed as the common resonator to replace the common matching network of the quadplexer and the SIRs are curved. Equivalent topology circuit is given to analyze and design the quadplexer. Detailed analyses are given according to the equivalent circuits. The proposed compact quadplexer working at central frequencies of 1.8, 2.4, 2.8, and 3.5 GHz with over 40 dB isolation is finally simulated, fabricated, and measured. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones. The total size of the fabricated quadplexer is 0.36 λg × 0.42 λg.
The North Qilian orogenic belt in North China has been defined as a subduction–collision zone between the Alxa Block and the Qilian Block. We present petrography, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major- and trace-element geochemistry, and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope analysis for the Yushigou diabase from the Longshoushan area, which is located SW of the Alxa Block, aiming to understand its petrogenetic link to subduction processes. The Yushigou diabase belongs to the tholeiite series, and shows enrichment in light rare earth and large-ion lithophile elements, and a depletion in heavy rare earth and high-field-strength elements. Laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dating yielded an emplacement age of 414 ± 9 Ma, with an ϵHf(t) value in the range of −10.3 to 1.8. The whole-rock initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of the diabase range over 16.811–17.157, 15.331–15.422 and 37.768–37.895, respectively. The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios vary between 0.7086 and 0.7106, and ϵNd(t) values vary between −14.4 and −13.4, which are significantly higher than the ϵHf(t) value (Nd–Hf decoupling). An interpretation of the elemental and isotopic data suggests that the Yushigou diabase was derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle I (EM-I) -type lithospheric mantle in the spinel–garnet transitional zone. Based on the geochemical features and previous regional geological data, we propose that the Silurian magmatism was most likely triggered by slab break-off after the closure of the North Qilian Ocean, and ancient continental materials from the subduction slab metasomatized the overlying lithospheric mantle during exhumation.
The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) may have acute psychological consequences, both in relation to the impact of the virus itself and the restrictions imposed to tackle its spread. We conducted an online survey of 403 residents in Guangzhou, China. We found the prevalence of anxiety (defined as Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7 score ≥5) was 37.7%, and anxiety was significantly and moderately correlated with worry about COVID-19. Higher anxiety levels in community residents was associated with the presence of individuals with COVID-19 in the same building; a longer time spent each day gathering information about the virus; and choosing social media as their preferred source of information. Our findings provide an insight into the psychological support and guidance about information sources that are required in this type of public health emergency.
Bituminous limestone of the Ediacaran Shibantan Member of the Dengying Formation (551–539 Ma) in the Yangtze Gorges area contains a rare carbonate-hosted Ediacara-type macrofossil assemblage. This assemblage is dominated by the tubular fossil Wutubus Chen et al., 2014 and discoidal fossils, e.g., Hiemalora Fedonkin, 1982 and Aspidella Billings, 1872, but frondose organisms such as Charnia Ford, 1958, Rangea Gürich, 1929, and Arborea Glaessner and Wade, 1966 are also present. Herein, we report four species of Arborea from the Shibantan assemblage, including the type species Arborea arborea (Glaessner in Glaessner and Daily, 1959) Glaessner and Wade, 1966, Arborea denticulata new species, and two unnamed species, Arborea sp. A and Arborea sp. B. Arborea arborea is the most abundant frond in the Shibantan assemblage. Arborea denticulata n. sp. resembles Arborea arborea in general morphology but differs in its fewer primary branches and lower length/width ratio of primary branches. Arborea sp. A and Arborea sp. B are fronds with a Hiemalora-type basal attachment. Sealing by microbial mats and authigenic cementation may have played an important role in the preservation of Arborea in the Shibantan assemblage. The Shibantan material of Arborea extends the stratigraphic, ecological, and taphonomic ranges of this genus.
Double-layer absorbers have recently been extensively studied because single-layer absorbers can hardly meet the requirements of advanced absorbing materials. However, determining how to couple the matching and absorption layers remains a challenge. In the present work, we applied the hydrothermal method to prepare an ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticle and a hierarchical MXene/Fe3O4 composite and then studied the microwave attenuation capabilities of single- and double-layer absorbers containing these two materials with different thicknesses. Absorbers with well-coupled layers showed improved absorption performance on account of the excellent impedance matching behavior of the Fe3O4 layer and the high microwave attenuation capability of the MXene/Fe3O4 layer. When the thickness of the matching layer filled with Fe3O4 was 0.1 mm and that of the absorption layer filled with MXene/Fe3O4 was 1.9 mm, a maximum reflection loss of −48.7 dB was achieved at 9.9 GHz. More importantly, when the thicknesses of the matching and absorption layers were 0.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively, the effective bandwidth was nearly 3.9 GHz. The double-layer absorbers with enhanced absorption properties may be regarded as a new generation of materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by a high risk of relapse. We aimed to compare the prophylactic effects of different antidepressant medicines (ADMs).
PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the Web of Science were searched on 4 July 2019. A pooled analysis of parametric survival curves was performed using a Bayesian framework. The main outcomes were hazard ratios (HRs), relapse-free survival and mean relapse-free months.
Forty randomized controlled trials were included. The 1-year relapse-free survival for ADM (76%) was significantly better than that for placebo (56%). Most of the relapse difference (86.5%) occurred in the first 6 months. Most HRs were not constant over time. Proof of benefit after 6 months of follow-up was not established partially because of small differences between the drug and placebo after 6 months. Almost all studies used an ‘enriched’ randomized discontinuation design, which may explain the high relapse rates in the first 6 months after randomization.
The superiority of ADM v. placebo was mainly attributed to the difference in relapse rates that occurred in the first 6 months. Our analysis provided evidence that the prophylactic efficacy was not constant over time. A beneficial effect was observed, but the prevention of new episodes after 6 months was questionable. These findings may have implications for clinical practice.
Since December 2019, China has experienced a widespread outbreak of COVID-19. However, at the early stage of outbreak, investigations revealed a variety of patterns resulting in the transmission of COVID-19. Thus, it is essential to understand the transmission types and the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission. Moreover, the information regarding the characteristics of transmission helps in coordinating the current screening programme, and controlling and containing measures, and also, helps in deciding the appropriate quarantine duration. Thus, this investigation reports an outbreak of COVID-19 in a family residing in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China during the month of January−February 2020.
In maritime search and rescue (SAR), commanders need to understand the task execution efficiency of each SAR unit in real time to improve the overall efficiency of SAR efforts. This study proposes a method to evaluate the progress of maritime SAR missions using automatic identification system (AIS) data. First, the positioning accuracy of the AIS data was improved according to the relationship between position, speed, and course. Second, the historical track of the SAR ship was used to generate the SAR completion area based on a line buffer algorithm. The SAR completion area and SAR mission area were then superimposed to determine the overall progress of the SAR mission. The proposed method has been deployed within the SAR software on-board Haixun01 (China's largest and most advanced large-scale cruise rescue ship) since 2017 and has played an important role in devising SAR strategies and tracking mission progress, during several SAR actions.
The storage root of alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.] growing in terrestrial habitats is an important metamorphic organ for its propagation, overwintering, and spread. However, the regulatory mechanism adventitious root expansion to form storage roots is still unclear. To reveal the changes accompanying the root-swelling process, we quantified sugar, soluble protein, and phytohormone content in adventitious and storage roots. Results demonstrated that sucrose, fructose, and soluble protein increased in storage roots, whereas abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), brassinosteroid (BR), gibberellin, jasmonic acid, and cytokinin (trans-zeatin [tZ] and isopentenyladenine [iP] and the corresponding ribosides tZR and iPR). tZ-type (tZR and tZ) content decreased, suggesting the involvement of sugars and hormones in the formation of storage roots. To further reveal the molecular basis of A. philoxeroides’s ability to form storage roots and provide candidate genes for molecular function analyses, we assembled a de novo transcriptome of A. philoxeroides based on four sets of RNA-sequencing data. According to functional annotation and expression profiling, 42 unigenes involved in sucrose synthesis and hydrolysis were identified, in addition to 70, 58, and 78 unigenes in ABA, BR, and IAA signal transduction, respectively. The quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed 21 unigenes involved in sugar metabolism and hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed during the formation of storage roots. These results revealed metabolic changes during the formation of storage roots and provide candidate genes involved in sugar and phytohormone metabolism in A. philoxeroides.
The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been considered a predictor of clinical outcomes for bacteremia. This retrospective study aimed to determine the clinical value of TTP for the prognostic assessment of patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. A total of 167 adult patients with E.coli bacteremia identified over a 22-month period in a 3500-bed university teaching hospital in China were studied. The standard cut-off TTP was 11 h in the patient cohort. The septic shock occurred in 27.9% of patients with early TTP (⩽11 h) and in 7.1% of those with a prolonged TTP (>11 h) (P = 0.003). The mortality rate was significantly higher for patients in the early than in the late group (17.7% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that an early TTP (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.70–11.93), intensive care unit admission (OR 8.39, 95% CI 2.01–35.14) and neutropenia (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.55–11.40) were independently associated with septic shock. Likewise, the independent risk factors for mortality of patients were an early TTP (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.04–12.90), intensive care unit admission (OR 6.45; 95% CI 1.14–36.53), a Pittsburgh bacteremia score ⩾2 (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.22–15.47) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index ⩾3 (OR 11.29, 95% CI 2.81–45.39). Overall, a TTP for blood cultures within 11 h appears to be associated with worse outcomes for patients with E.coli bacteremia.
In order to assess late prehistoric human responses to climate change in the Western Loess Plateau (WLP), we investigated 13,567 charred plant seeds and 19 radiocarbon (14C) dates obtained from 41 late prehistoric sites in the upper Wei River valley. Based on these new dating results as well as their cultural attributes, these sites could be confidently divided into four chronological phases (Phase 1: Late Yangshao and Majiayao culture; Phase 2: Qijia culture; Phases 3 and 4: Siwa culture) but a significant gap was identified at ca. 3600–3000 cal yr BP in this region. Comparison of this interval to high-resolution paleoclimate records from Tianchi Lake suggests it could be attributed to the dramatic drop in temperature at this time. Accordingly, archaeobotanical evidence with a refined chronology shows the adoption of cold-tolerant subsistence cereal grains such as barley on the NETP (Northeast Tibetan Plateau). Drawing from various lines of knowledge (chronology, palaeoclimate, archaeobotany, and archaeology), it is reasonable to conclude that, even when confronting a similar magnitude of climate change, local human societies could vary tremendously. Different subsistence strategies were brought in by the trans-Eurasia culture exchange of prehistoric times.
Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes (“preserved,” “deteriorated,” and “compromised”) seen in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group.
Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in “deteriorated” cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in “compromised” than “preserved” subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in “deteriorated” compared with healthy controls and “preserved” subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes.
These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.
Most previous researches indicated that impaired inhibition to emotional stimuli could be one of the important cognitive characteristics of depression individuals. The antisaccade tasks which composed of prosaccade task (PS) and antisaccade task (AS) were often used to investigate response inhibition.
This study aimed to investigate the volition inhibition toward emotional stimuli in depressed mood undergraduates (DM).
Subjects were grouped as 21 DM and 25 non-depressed undergraduates (ND) on the Beck Depression Inventory and Self-rating Depression Scale. The antisaccade tasks were conducted to examine the inhibition abilities by varying the arousal level of volition (low and high) of the tasks, with happy, neutral and sad facial expressions as stimuli.
The results showed that at the low volition level in the AS condition, the correct saccade latency in the DM were significant slower than the ND; The DM had reliable higher direction error rates in response to emotional facial expressions, especially for sad expressions. However, all of the differences disappeared in the high volition level antisaccade tasks. The amplitude errors data were not influenced by emotional facial expressions, and there were no group differences across tasks.
These results indicated the DM showed slower speed of cognitive processing and impaired inhibition abilities toward emotional faces than the ND, particularly for sad faces, but these abilities will be repaired in the high arousal level of volition, which enlighten us that training the DM's volition level of inhibition could prove to be an effective strategy to alleviate depression.