To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
GBF1 [Golgi brefeldin A (BFA) resistance factor 1] is a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Arf family. GBF1 localizes at the cis-Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment where it participates in ER-Golgi traffic by assisting in the recruitment of the coat protein COPI. However, the roles of GBF1 in oocyte meiotic maturation are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory functions of GBF1 in mouse oocyte organelle dynamics. In our results, GBF1 was stably expressed during oocyte maturation, and GBF1 localized at the spindle periphery during metaphase I. Inhibiting GBF1 activity led to aberrant accumulation of the Golgi apparatus around the spindle. This may be due to the effects of GBF1 on the localization of GM130, as GBF1 co-localized with GM130 and inhibiting GBF1 induced condensation of GM130. Moreover, the loss of GBF1 activity affected the ER distribution and induced ER stress, as shown by increased GRP78 expression. Mitochondrial localization and functions were affected, as the mitochondrial membrane potential was altered. Taken together, these results suggest that GBF1 has wide-ranging effects on the distribution and functions of Golgi apparatus, ER, and mitochondria as well as normal polar body formation in mouse oocytes.
Carotenoids are increasingly being implicated to have an important role in brain and eye development. This study aimed to quantify the content and profile of carotenoids in human breast milk, maternal plasma and neonatal umbilical cord plasma in Chengdu, an urban area in Southwest China. In this study, fifty-four healthy mothers were enrolled. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk were collected. Concentrations of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene) were analysed by HPLC. We found that carotenoid concentrations decreased from colostrum to mature milk. Hydrocarbon carotenoids with weaker polarity decreased more than the polar carotenoids. Lycopene concentrations dropped by 99 %, β-carotene by 92 %, β-cryptoxanthin by 83 %, lutein by 32 % and zeaxanthin by 22 %. Lycopene and β-carotene accounted for 70 % of the total carotenoids in colostrum, and lutein predominated amongst carotenoids in transitional milk and mature milk (51–55 %). Carotenoid concentrations in maternal plasma were much higher than that in cord plasma. Lutein predominated in cord plasma. The concentrations of all carotenoids in maternal plasma were correlated with those of cord plasma and human milk. These results are consistent with selective transport mechanisms in the mammary gland related to the polarity of carotenoids, and each carotenoid has its own implications, which may have different priorities in the early life development of infants. These findings may help guide dietary recommendations for carotenoid inclusion in infant formulas.
Cotton fibre yield and quality are markedly influenced by drought and high-temperature stress. We examined the traits of the leaf stomata in 39 cotton genotypes subjected to exogenous phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, electrolyte leakage under 40°C thermal stress, and relative GhHsfA, GhbZIP and GhHSP70 expression levels under two treatments. Stomatal density and area ranged from 66 to 182/mm2 and 663 to 1305 μm2, respectively. Under exogenous ABA signalling, the changes in stomatal aperture (ΔSAp) were in the range of 2.5–31.2%; ΔSAp and relative GhHsfA, GhbZIP and GhHSP70 expression levels were significantly correlated, respectively. Electrolyte leakage increased unequally among cotton genotypes after heat stress. The changes in electrolyte leakage (ΔEL) and relative GhHsfA, GhbZIP and GhHSP70 expression levels were very strongly correlated, respectively. Their relative expression levels could be used as references for the rapid identification of stress-tolerant cotton strains. Cluster analysis of the 39 cotton genotypes indicated that Xinluzao36, Shiyang1, shinong98-7 and Zhongmiansuo293 are heat- and drought-resistant. We integrated both analysis of physiological parameters and molecular methods to identify cotton varieties with the drought and heat tolerance, in order to provide a reference for the selection of materials and methods for the research and production of cotton.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Additive manufacturing (AM) comprises a group of transformative technologies that are likely to revolutionize manufacturing. In particular, laser-based metal AM techniques can not only fabricate parts with extreme complexity, but also provide innovative means for designing and processing new metallic systems. However, there are still several technical barriers that constrain metal AM. Overcoming these barriers requires a better understanding of the physics underlying the complex and dynamic laser–metal interaction at the heart of many AM processes. This article briefly describes the state of the art of in situ/operando synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction for studying metal AM, mostly the laser powder-bed fusion process. It highlights the immediate impact of operando synchrotron studies on the advancement of AM technologies, and presents future research challenges and opportunities.
To examine the association between physician–patient treatments shared decision making (SDM), patient satisfaction, and adoption of a new health technology.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2016 to October 2016 in Fujian Province and Shanghai, in Eastern China. A total of 542 physicians and 619 patients in eleven hospitals were surveyed. Patients and their treating physicians completed self-reported questionnaires on patient–physician SDM, satisfaction with treatment decision making and adoption of a new health technology. Correlation analysis, multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were performed.
The majority (68.20 percent) of patients preferred SDM. Involvement of patients in SDM was positively associated with their satisfaction with treatment decision making (p < .001) and adoption of a new health technology (p < .05). Better concordance between their preference and actual SDM was positively associated with patients' adoption behavior (p < .05), but no statistically significant association was found between concordance and satisfaction.
SDM was the most important predictor of patients' satisfaction with decision making and adoption of a new health technology. Therefore, better communication between physicians and patients is recommended to improve their SDM, increase patient satisfaction and to assist with the adoption of new technologies. Training healthcare provider and teaching communication skills in working with patients in the initial stage of technology diffusion is required.
The effects of flow velocity on the fitness-related behaviours of Mesocentrotus nudus remain largely unknown, greatly hampering the efficiency of stock enhancement. To explore the appropriate velocities for stock enhancement, we investigated dislodgement and immobilization velocities up to 90 cm s−1. The experimental results showed that M. nudus (test diameter of ~30 mm) were dislodged at 73.50 ± 7.7 cm s−1 and that M. nudus movement occurred only when the flow velocity was less than 33.40 ± 2.7 cm s−1. Three flow velocities less than 33.40 ± 2.7 cm s−1 (2, 10 and 20 cm s−1) were subsequently used to study the effects of flow velocities on covering behaviour and the righting response time of M. nudus. The downstream movement velocity of M. nudus was significantly larger than that upstream at 2 cm s−1 (P = 0.016) and 10 cm s−1 (P = 0.008), but not at 20 cm s−1 (P = 0.222). The righting response time of M. nudus was significantly longer at 20 cm s−1 than that at 2 cm s−1 (P = 0.015). The present study indicates that a flow velocity less than 20 cm s−1, preferably 2–10 cm s−1, is probably appropriate for the stock enhancement of M. nudus. Notably, the current study is a laboratory investigation without considering the hydrographic complexity in the field. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the long-term effects of water flow on feeding and growth of M. nudus both in the laboratory and the field.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a potential zoonotic pathogen, which mainly causes respiratory diseases in humans and a variety of animal species. B. bronchiseptica is one of the important pathogens isolated from rabbits in Fujian Province. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology and characteristics of the B. bronchiseptica in rabbits in Fujian Province is largely unknown. In this study, 219 B. bronchiseptica isolates recovered from lung samples of dead rabbits with respiratory diseases in Fujian Province were characterised by multi-locus sequencing typing, screening virulence genes and testing antimicrobial susceptibility. The results showed that the 219 isolates were typed into 11 sequence types (STs) including five known STs (ST6, ST10, ST12, ST14 and ST33) and six new STs (ST88, ST89, ST90, ST91, ST92 and ST93) and the ST33 (30.14%, 66/219), ST14 (26.94%, 59/219) and ST12 (16.44%, 36/219) were the three most prevalent STs. Surprisingly, all the 219 isolates carried the five virulence genes (fhaB, prn, cyaA, dnt and bteA) in the polymerase chain reaction screening. Moreover, the isolates were resistant to cefixime, ceftizoxime, cefatriaxone and ampicillin at rates of 33.33%, 31.05%, 11.87% and 3.20%, respectively. This study showed the genetic diversity of B. bronchiseptica in rabbits in Fujian Province, and the colonisation of the human-associated ST12 strain in rabbits in Fujian Province. The results might be useful for monitoring the epidemic strains, developing preventive methods and preventing the transmission of epidemic strains from rabbits to humans.
Oxygen concentration influences oocyte quality and subsequent embryo development, but it remains unclear whether oxygen concentrations affect the developmental competence and transcriptomic profile of yak oocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of different oxygen concentrations (5% versus 20%) on the developmental competence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, and transcriptomic profile of yak oocytes. The results showed that a low oxygen concentration significantly increased the maturation rate of yak oocytes (81.2 ± 2.2% vs 75.9 ± 1.3%) and the blastocyst quality of yak in vitro fertilized embryos. Analysis of ROS and GSH showed that a low oxygen concentration reduced ROS levels and increased the content of GSH (75.05 ± 7.1 ng/oocyte vs 50.63 ± 5.6 ng/oocyte). Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis identified 120 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two groups of oocytes. Gene enrichment analysis of the DEGs indicated multiple cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, transcription regulation, mitochondrial regulation, oestrogen signalling pathway, HIF-1 signalling pathway, TNF signalling pathway, were involved in the response to oxygen concentration alterations. Taken together, these results indicated that a low oxygen concentration improved the developmental competence of yak oocytes.
The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) may have acute psychological consequences, both in relation to the impact of the virus itself and the restrictions imposed to tackle its spread. We conducted an online survey of 403 residents in Guangzhou, China. We found the prevalence of anxiety (defined as Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7 score ≥5) was 37.7%, and anxiety was significantly and moderately correlated with worry about COVID-19. Higher anxiety levels in community residents was associated with the presence of individuals with COVID-19 in the same building; a longer time spent each day gathering information about the virus; and choosing social media as their preferred source of information. Our findings provide an insight into the psychological support and guidance about information sources that are required in this type of public health emergency.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to over 213 countries and territories. We sought to describe the clinical features of fatalities in patients with severe COVID-19.
We conducted an Internet-based retrospective cohort study through retrieving the clinical information of 100 COVID-19 deaths from nonduplicating incidental reports in Chinese provincial and other governmental websites between January 23 and March 10, 2020.
Approximately 6 of 10 COVID-19 deaths were males (64.0%). The average age was 70.7 ± 13.5 y, and 84% of patients were elderly (over age 60 y). The mean duration from admission to diagnosis was 2.2 ± 3.8 d (median: 1 d). The mean duration from diagnosis to death was 9.9 ± 7.0 d (median: 9 d). Approximately 3 of 4 cases (76.0%) were complicated by 1 or more chronic diseases, including hypertension (41.0%), diabetes (29.0%) and coronary heart disease (27.0%), respiratory disorders (23.0%), and cerebrovascular disease (12.0%). Fever (46.0%), cough (33.0%), and shortness of breath (9.0%) were the most common first symptoms. Multiple organ failure (67.9%), circulatory failure (20.2%), and respiratory failure (11.9%) are the top 3 direct causes of death.
COVID-19 deaths are mainly elderly and patients with chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Multiple organ failure is the most common direct cause of death.
From 21 January 2020 to 9 February 2020, three family clusters involving 31 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were identified in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the family cluster patients were analysed and compared with those of 43 contemporaneous sporadic cases. The three index cases transmitted the infection to 28 family members 2–10 days before illness onset. Overall, 28 of the 41 sporadic cases and three of 31 patients in the family clusters came back from Wuhan (65.12 vs. 9.68%, P< 0.001). In terms of epidemiological characters and clinical symptoms, no significant differences were observed between the family cluster and sporadic cases. However, the lymphocyte counts of sporadic cases were significantly lower than those of family cluster cases ((1.32 ± 0.55) × 109/l vs. (1.63 ± 0.70) × 109/l, P = 0.037), and the proportion of hypoalbuminaemia was higher in sporadic cases (18/43, 41.86%) than in the family clusters (6/31, 19.35%) (P < 0.05). Within the family cluster, the second- and third-generation cases had milder clinical manifestations, without severe conditions, compared with the index and first-generation cases, indicating that the virulence gradually decreased following passage through generations within the family clusters. Close surveillance, timely recognition and isolation of the suspected or latent patient is crucial in preventing family cluster infection.
Several diagonal-based tail dependence indices have been suggested in the literature to quantify tail dependence. They have well-developed statistical inference theories but tend to underestimate tail dependence. For those problems when assessing the maximal strength of dependence is important (e.g., co-movements of financial instruments), the maximal tail dependence index was introduced, but it has so far lacked empirical estimators and statistical inference results, thus hindering its practical use. In the present paper, we suggest an empirical estimator for the index, explore its statistical properties, and illustrate its performance on simulated data.