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This study examined the mediating effects of future social expectations and interpersonal distrust on the relationship between individual relative deprivation and intention to rebel. Data were gathered from 807 people from multiple occupational backgrounds in a municipality in southwest China. Structural equation modelling showed that individual relative deprivation predicted intention to rebel directly and also that it predicted intention to rebel indirectly via negative future social expectations, interpersonal distrust, and a chain mediating effect of negative future social expectations and interpersonal distrust. These results highlight the importance of the associations between future social expectations and interpersonal distrust with intention to rebel in people who report relative deprivation. The findings also indicate that prevention and intervention programs related to relative deprivation and intention to rebel in China are worthy of further research.
The statistic studies of the absorbing forest in the spectra of high redshift QSOs will provide an important approach to the understanding of the physical properties of the absorbing materials. For this purpose a collection of uniform samples would be very important and urgent. It is very time consuming of the large telescopes to take the high resolution, high ratio-to-noise and wide coverage of wavelength of the QSO's spectra, therefore, an international collaboration in a uniform way would be very desirable.
A comparison between three types of intervening absorption line systems: the Lyα forest, the Lyα damped systems and the narrow metal line systems has been done for the observational properties including the frequency of the systems, the equivalent width distribution, the two point correlation function, the metal abundances, and the dN/dz vs. z behavior.
Savage et al. (1977) found that the radio source PKS 1448-232 coincided with a stellar object of about magnitude 16.4 having an ultraviolet excess. A low resolution spectrum obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) confirmed this object as a QSO with zem = 2.22 and revealed many absorption lines short-ward of the La emission. Consequently this object was included in a programme of spectroscopy at intermediate resolution with the AAT to investigate QSO absorption lines. Savage et al. have given a finding chart with an optical position of 14h48m09s.3, −23°17′10″ (1950.0). The radio fluxes are 0.40 Jy at 2.7 GHz and 0.31 Jy at 5.0 GHz.
This paper investigates the tidal effect on accretion disk in CVs and sets up a simplified model in which the secondary’s gravitation is substituted by a mean tidal torque. We find that a linear tidal torque will not be able to maintain an equilibrium disk. By using the result of the radius of the equilibrium disk approximately equals to the tidal radius, which was obtained by using the two dimensional numerical simulation invoking nonlinear tidal effect, we give the modified tidal dissipation function for our simplified model which could be used to interpret the outburst of the dwarf nova with tidal effect. The paper also shows that the radius of an equilibrium disk with a torus is slightly small than the Lubow-Shu radius, and the tidal effect may also cause the cycle of quiescence-superoutburst in addition to the cycle of quiescence-outbursts-superoutburst.
Current users only use CCDs to cover a small fraction of the Schmidt fields. We discuss what kind of Schmidt astronomy is more efficient and the advantages of Schmidt telescopes over reflecting telescopes. The BAO CCD multi-object light curve survey system and the BATC 15 colour survey are introduced.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
Sn–Ag–Cu solder interconnects were made by solidifying the solder balls in a magnetic field and subsequently tested for their electromigration behavior. The orientation of the tin grains was analyzed by electron backscattered diffraction. It was found that the c-axis of Sn grain tended to rotate away from the direction of the magnetic field during solidification, resulting in an enhanced electromigration resistance for the solder joint when the current was applied along the direction of the magnetic field, as evidenced by a smaller electromigration-induced polarity effect in the growth of the interfacial intermetallic compound. Such a reduced polarity-effect of electromigration is shown to agree well with the anisotropy in the diffusivity of the active diffusion species, Cu, in the tetragonal Sn. The difference of free energy change caused by the anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility of the tetragonal Sn during solidification is suggested to be the main factor for this phenomenon.
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcriptional factor activated during cerebral ischemia, which regulates a great number of downstream genes, including those associated with cell death. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that post-ischemic HIF-1α up-regulation might promote autophagy activation; thereby, HIF-1α inhibitor 2ME2 might prevent neurons from ischemic injury through inhibiting autophagy.
Global ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion model (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 250-280g). 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, 5mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to down-regulate HIF-1α expression. Post-ischemic beclin-1 and LC3 protein expression was determined at different time points through Western blot assay. Neuronal injury was determined by cresyl violet staining and TUNEL staining in coronal histological sections.
The expression of beclin-1 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I increased significantly at 12 and 24 h after ischemia. 2ME2 could remarkably inhibit the up-regulation of beclin-1 and the increase of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio during reperfusion. Moreover, 2ME2 and 3-MA exhibited powerful protective effects against ischemic/reperfusion induced neuronal injury.
This study confirmed that autophagy participated in post-ischemic neuronal injury. 2ME2, a HIF-1α inhibitor, might significantly decrease autophagy activation after cerebral ischemia and relieve post-ischemic neuronal injury. Our findings demonstrate that autophagy could be a potential target for neuronal protection after cerebral ischemia.
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a technique of material processing and surface modification, using controllable negative high voltage pulsed bias to attract the ion generated from the plasma. The method using PIII treatment quickly improves the performance of solar cell made of crystalline silicon, including monocrystalline, multicrystalline and polycrystalline silicon. Hydrogen ions are attracted and quickly implanted into solar cell under a predetermined negative pulse voltage, thus, the passivation of the crystal defects of the solar cell can be realized in a short period. Meanwhile, the properties of the antireflection layer can not be damaged as the proper operating conditions are used. Consequently, the series resistance can be significantly reduced and the filling factor increases as a result. Both the short-circuit and the open-circuit voltage can be increased. The efficiency can be enhanced.
A recently developed method for producing triaxial alignment of single crystalline grains may be applicable to ceramics other than the high-Tc cuprate superconductors for which it was designed as a means of reducing the grain boundary weak links due to grain orientational misfit. This technique uses a suitable combination of a mechanical force and a magnetic field acting on the moment of a rare earth element incorporated into the ceramic; a "granular single crystal" is thus formed. A detailed step-by-step procedure is presented here to facilitate use of the new approach.
The new biaxial alignment technique based on a combination of magnetic field and mechanical force alignment (acting normal to each other) has been applied for the first time to an RE-123 superconductor ceramic, where RE - Eu .92 Yb .08. Biaxial (and hence triaxial) alignment was achieved, at least in the surface layer, as demonstrated by XRD and observation of the twin boundary pattern.
Barium zirconate-titanate (Ba(ZrxTi1−x)O3, BZT) films with thickness around 60 nm were deposited on Ir substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of zirconium atomic fraction (x = 0.14 to 0.7), substrate temperature (380 °C to 550 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (0 to 5 mTorr with total pressure 30 mTorr) on leakage current, dielectric constant and dielectric dispersion (capacitance reduction with increasing frequency) was studied. We found that the Zr/Ti ratio played a crucial role in determining the dielectric constant and dispersion. The dielectric constant varies from 26 to 168 while dispersion ranges from 0.80 to 2.58 % loss in capacitance (dielectric constant) per decade of frequency. Low leakage currents (< 1× 10−7 A/cm2) were observed.
Survivin is a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family that bear baculoviral IAP repeats (BIRs), whose physiological roles in regulating meiotic cell cycle need to be determined. Confocal microscopy was employed to observe the localization of survivin in rat oocytes. At the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, survivin was mainly concentrated in the GV. At the prometaphase I (pro-MI) and metaphase I (MI) stage, survivin was mainly localized at the kinetochores, with a light staining detected on the chromosomes. After transition to anaphase I or telophase I stage, survivin migrated to the midbody, and signals on the kinetochores and chromosomes disappeared. At metaphase II (MII) stage, survivin became mainly localized at the kinetochores again. Microinjection of oocytes with anti-survivin antibodies at the beginning of the meiosis, thus blocking the normal function of survivin, resulted in abnormal spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and first polar body emission. These results suggest that survivin is involved in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in rat oocytes.
The objective of this study was to test if intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated gene transfer was an effective method in the production of transgenic rabbit embryos. Rabbit sperm diluted in different media with various pH were treated by freezing without cryoprotectant, and their ability for DNA uptake was determined. In these experiments using production of transgenic rabbit embryos by ICSI, exogenous genes at three concentrations and of two conformation types were used. The rate of DNA association to the sperm seen by rhodamine-tagged DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was 90.0%, 92.7%, 91.0%, 91.7%, and 92.3%, respectively in TCM199, DM, DPBS, CZB, and HCZB media. The DNA attachment to sperm was not affected by media pH within the range of 5.4–9.4 (p > 0.05). Expression of GFP first occurred at the 2-cell stage and continued to blastocyst formation. DNA concentration (between 5, 10, and 20 ng/μl) or conformation (linear and circular) had no effect on the production rate of transgenic embryos. These results indicated that genetically modified rabbit blastocysts can be efficiently produced by ICSI technique.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an assisted fertilization technique and has been widely applied in human medicine to overcome some obstacles of infertility. However, this technology has not yet been used as a mainstream technique for animal production, including the rabbit, due to its limited success. The aim of this study was to improve ICSI techniques and establish an efficient ICSI method for rabbits. Spermatozoa used for ICSI were collected from mature New Zealand white male rabbits. They were washed two to three times with HEPES-buffered TCM199 containing 10% FBS and then mixed with 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) prior to microinjection. Oocytes were harvested from superovulated donor rabbits after 14–15 h hCG treatment and were fertilized by microinjection of a single living spermatozoon into the ooplasm of each oocyte without additional activation treatment. A total of 317 injected oocytes resulted in the high survival rate of 86.1%. Among the surviving oocytes, 273 were placed into culture dishes for in vitro development. The fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst rates were 59.0%, 88.2% and 45.3% respectively. Furthermore, ICSI embryos were produced with spermatozoa from an infertile male rabbit, and 21 early-stage embryos (2-cell and 4-cell) were surgically transferred into the oviducts of two adult female rabbits. On day 31 after transfer, one out of the two recipients gave birth to two normal and healthy young rabbits. These results demonstrate that rabbit oocytes can be successfully activated and fertilized by the new ICSI protocol. Spermatozoa derived from infertile rabbits can successful fertilize oocytes and produce offspring by the simple ICSI technique.
BMI is commonly used as a sole indicator for the assessment of nutritional status. While it is a good predictor of morbidity and mortality among young and middle-aged adults, its predictive ability among the oldest old remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and risk of falls, fractures and all-cause mortality among older Australians in residential aged care facilities. One thousand eight hundred and forty-six residents of fifty-two nursing homes and thirty hostels in northern Sydney, Australia, participated in the present study. Baseline weight and height were measured and BMI (kg/m2) calculated. For 2 years following the baseline measurements, incidence and date of all falls and fractures were recorded by research nurses who visited the facilities regularly and date of death was documented based on the participants' records at each facility. Cox proportional hazards regression models were calculated to determine the relationship between baseline BMI and time to fall, fracture or death, within 2 years following the baseline measures taken to be the censoring date. After adjustments were made for age, sex and level of care, low BMI ( < 22 kg/m2) increased the risk of fracture by 38 % (hazard ratio = 1·38, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·73) and all-cause mortality by 52 % (hazard ratio = 1·52, 95 % CI 1·30, 1·79). The magnitude of this effect was only slightly reduced when adjustments were further made to incorporate cognition, number of medications, falls and fracture in the subsequent 2-year period. In conclusion, BMI has predictive ability in the area of fracture and all-cause mortality for residents of aged care facilities. It is a simple and rapid indicator of nutritional status rendering it a useful nutrition screen and goal for nutrition intervention.
A parent strain of Aspergillus niger LW-1 producing β-mannanase, preserved in our laboratory, was isolated. A strain, N-9, was screened out and further treated with vacuum microwave irradiation and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). A mutant strain, E-30, producing a high and stable yield of β-mannanase was obtained through screening by solid-state cultivation on the basic fermentation medium and several generations of bevel subculture. Its enzyme activity (36 675 U/g) was increased by 2.15 times compared to that of A. niger LW-1 (17 048 U/g). The production of high-yield β-mannanase by E-30 remained stable when maintained at 4°C for 2 months.
Crystalline tungsten suboxide nanowires were grown on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation of tungsten powder in a flow of argon gas without any catalyst. With different growth temperatures, two kinds of tungsten suboxide nanowires (W18O49 and W20O58) were obtained. The structures, morphologies, and compositions of these two nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman techniques. The results show that XRD and TEM are not good characterization techniques for identifying W18O49 and W20O58 nanowires; however, Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a powerful tool to distinguish the difference between them. This is due to the notable molecular bond contributing to the vibrational frequency.