To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Algorithmic graph theory has been expanding at an extremely rapid rate since the middle of the twentieth century, in parallel with the growth of computer science and the accompanying utilization of computers, where efficient algorithms have been a prime goal. This book presents material on developments on graph algorithms and related concepts that will be of value to both mathematicians and computer scientists, at a level suitable for graduate students, researchers and instructors. The fifteen expository chapters, written by acknowledged international experts on their subjects, focus on the application of algorithms to solve particular problems. All chapters were carefully edited to enhance readability and standardize the chapter structure as well as the terminology and notation. The editors provide basic background material in graph theory, and a chapter written by the book's Academic Consultant, Martin Charles Golumbic (University of Haifa, Israel), provides background material on algorithms as connected with graph theory.
We describe and analyze patterns in the geographical focus of political science research across more than a century. Using a new database of titles and abstracts from 27,690 publications in eight major political science journals from their inception, we demonstrate that, historically, political scientists concentrated their studies on a limited number of countries situated in North America and Western Europe. While a strong focus on Western countries remains today, we detail how this picture has changed somewhat over recent decades, with political science research becoming increasingly “globalized.” Still, several countries have received almost no attention, and geographical citation patterns differ by subfield. For example, we find indications of a greater focus on the United States and large Western European countries in international relations than in comparative politics publications. We also analyze several correlates of a country being the focus of political science research, including the country’s predominant languages, income, population size, democracy level, and conflict experience, and show systematic variation in the geographical focus of research. This unequal focus, we argue, has important implications regarding the applicability of extant descriptive and causal claims, as well as the development of theories in political science.
Prominent figures are frequently subjected to unwanted and intrusive attentions. Such stalking behaviour is often driven by psychotic illness, angrily blaming the public figure for delusional persecution (resentful motivation), or based on erotomanic delusions (intimacy seeking motivation), for example. This behaviour can cause psychological harm to both perpetrator and victim, and is unlawful. In the rare instances where a public figure has been attacked, the perpetrator has usually had a history of such stalking behaviour and of severe mental illness. For these reasons, early identification and diversion into appropriate care and treatment will be for the benefit of both parties and will prevent more serious violence in a minority of cases. The importance of the provision of education to improve both reporting rates by victims and an appropriate response from the criminal justice system is highlighted. A multi-agency approach involving the criminal justice system and mental health services is the most effective means of achieving these aims.
DECLARATION OF INTEREST
•Learn that severe mental illness, particularly psychosis, is often an important driver of stalking behaviour
•Learn that delusional disorder is a treatable mental illness
•Appreciate that prevention rather than prediction is the approach to managing the risks of high-harm low-probability outcomes.
This article illustrates major trends in political science research and frames the progress of research agendas in comparative politics. Drawing on the titles and abstracts of every article published in eight major political science journals between 1906 and 2015, the study tracks the frequency of references to specific keywords over time. The analysis corresponds to and complements extant descriptions of how the field has developed, providing evidence of three ‘revolutions’ that shaped comparative politics—the divorce of political science from history during its early years, a behavioral revolution that lasted until the late 1960s, and a second scientific revolution after 1989 characterized by greater empiricism. Understanding the development of the subdiscipline, and viewing it through the research published in political science over the last 100 years, provides useful context for teaching future comparativists and encourages scholars to think more broadly about the research traditions to which they are contributing.
Recent studies point to overlap between neuropsychiatric disorders in symptomatology and genetic aetiology.
To systematically investigate genomics overlap between childhood and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD).
Analysis of whole-genome blood gene expression and genetic risk scores of 318 individuals. Participants included individuals affected with adult ADHD (n = 93), childhood ADHD (n = 17), MDD (n = 63), ASD (n = 51), childhood dual diagnosis of ADHD–ASD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 78).
Weighted gene co-expression analysis results reveal disorder-specific signatures for childhood ADHD and MDD, and also highlight two immune-related gene co-expression modules correlating inversely with MDD and adult ADHD disease status. We find no significant relationship between polygenic risk scores and gene expression signatures.
Our results reveal disorder overlap and specificity at the genetic and gene expression level. They suggest new pathways contributing to distinct pathophysiology in psychiatric disorders and shed light on potential shared genomic risk factors.
One measure used in the management of staphylococcal disease outbreaks in newborn nurseries is to obtain nasal cultures from nursery personnel and then treat nasal carriers with topical antibiotic ointments. Because recent infection control guidelines often omit reference to this measure, we surveyed current practices in larger hospitals in the U.S.A. Seventy-one percent of respondents indicated that they would obtain nasal cultures from personnel during a staphylococcal disease outbreak, and 40% indicated that they would prescribe topical antibiotic ointments for personnel with positive nasal cultures before the results of bacteriophage typing became known. Because little has been written about the efficacy of topical intranasal antibiotics within the past decade, we compared bacitracin ointment with a vancomycin ointment for treatment of the staphylococcal nasal carrier state. Both ointments reduced nasal carriage in the majority of instances. However, similar reduction was also observed in an untreated control group. The need for different approaches to the problem of nasal carriers is discussed.
An important question for international investors concerns the relationship between political institutions and property rights. Yet a debate remains over whether authoritarian institutions promote favorable investment climates. Using data on oil nationalization in a sample of autocracies, this study finds that legislatures are correlated with lower expropriation risk in non-personalist dictatorships, but a higher risk of nationalization in personalist regimes. The results show a consistent pattern between authoritarian institutions and property protections, for which context matters.
Data envelopment analysis is used to calculate technical, allocative, economic, and scale efficiencies for fields enrolled in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program. The results reveal most fields have high technical and scale efficiencies, implying inputs are used in minimum levels necessary to achieve given output levels and fields are close to optimal in size. However, most fields exhibit allocative and economic inefficiencies and do not use inputs in the right combinations necessary to achieve cost minimization. Tobit analysis indicated allocative and economic efficiencies could be improved with better variety selection and better irrigation management.
Comprising seven essays by learned contributors and controversially advocating a rationalist Christianity, this work became a sensation upon publication in 1860. Frederick Temple (1821–1902), later Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote on the cultural contributions of non-Christians; Roland Williams (1817–70), Professor of Hebrew at Lampeter, questioned Old Testament prophesies; Baden Powell (1796–1850), Oxford Professor of Geometry, challenged belief in miracles and embraced Darwinism; Henry Bristow Wilson (1803–88) questioned literal biblical history; the only lay contributor, Egyptologist Charles Wycliffe Goodwin (1817–78), embraced geology; Mark Pattison (1813–84), tutor at Lincoln College, wrote on the history of rationalist theology; and Benjamin Jowett (1817–93), Oxford Professor of Greek, advocated a historical reading of the Bible. Wilson and Williams were later found guilty of heresy by a Church court, though this was overturned on appeal. For readers interested in the theological controversies of the Victorian era, these essays remain invaluable.