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Prominent figures are frequently subjected to unwanted and intrusive attentions. Such stalking behaviour is often driven by psychotic illness, angrily blaming the public figure for delusional persecution (resentful motivation), or based on erotomanic delusions (intimacy seeking motivation), for example. This behaviour can cause psychological harm to both perpetrator and victim, and is unlawful. In the rare instances where a public figure has been attacked, the perpetrator has usually had a history of such stalking behaviour and of severe mental illness. For these reasons, early identification and diversion into appropriate care and treatment will be for the benefit of both parties and will prevent more serious violence in a minority of cases. The importance of the provision of education to improve both reporting rates by victims and an appropriate response from the criminal justice system is highlighted. A multi-agency approach involving the criminal justice system and mental health services is the most effective means of achieving these aims.
DECLARATION OF INTEREST
•Learn that severe mental illness, particularly psychosis, is often an important driver of stalking behaviour
•Learn that delusional disorder is a treatable mental illness
•Appreciate that prevention rather than prediction is the approach to managing the risks of high-harm low-probability outcomes.
A significant number of X-ray binaries are now known to exhibit long-term periodicities on timescales of ~10 - 100 days. Several physical mechanisms have been proposed that give rise to such periodicities, one of which is radiation-driven warping and precession of the accretion disk. Recent theoretical work predicts the stability to disk warping as a, function of the mass ratio, binary radius, viscosity and accretion efficiency. We investigate the stability of the superorbital periodicities in the neutron star X-ray binaries Cyg X-2, LMC X-4, SMC X-l and Her X-l, and thereby confront stability predictions with observation. We find that the period and nature of the superorbital variations in these sources is consistent with the predictions of warping theory.
This article illustrates major trends in political science research and frames the progress of research agendas in comparative politics. Drawing on the titles and abstracts of every article published in eight major political science journals between 1906 and 2015, the study tracks the frequency of references to specific keywords over time. The analysis corresponds to and complements extant descriptions of how the field has developed, providing evidence of three ‘revolutions’ that shaped comparative politics—the divorce of political science from history during its early years, a behavioral revolution that lasted until the late 1960s, and a second scientific revolution after 1989 characterized by greater empiricism. Understanding the development of the subdiscipline, and viewing it through the research published in political science over the last 100 years, provides useful context for teaching future comparativists and encourages scholars to think more broadly about the research traditions to which they are contributing.
The object of the 1957 program of the Juneau Ice Field Research Project on Lemon Creek Glacier was (1) to obtain data on surface movement in the accumulation region, and (2) to relate the movement to the average annual hydrological budget. Results show a net loss of ice over the past four years, although this deficit does not appear to be reflected by the movement of the ice. Lemon Creek Glacier appears to be in approximate equilibrium.
The volume of ice that flows annually from the Skelton Glacier on the west side of the Ross Ice Shelf between the Worcester and Royal Society Ranges was determined during 1958–59 traverse operations to be approximately 791 × 106 m.3 or 712 × 106 m.3 water equivalent. Annual accumulation on the Skelton névé field and small cirque glaciers is estimated to be 1,018 × 106 m.3 water equivalent, but this figure can be reduced to 712 × 106 m.3 by assuming that 30 per cent of the expected accumulation in the lower slopes of the glacier is lost to adjacent areas of the Ross Ice Shelf by katabatic winds. It is evident that little or no contribution to the nourishment of the Skelton Glacier comes from the high plateau area of East Antarctica. It is suggested that this condition exists generally in the western Ross Sea and Ross Shelf area, and is responsible for the existence of the present “dry” valleys in the McMurdo Sound area.
Some estimates of local ice regime are made at two sites on the glacier where ice thickness and strain rates are known.
Data are supplied to show that the “blue” surface ice zone encountered in the Skelton Glacier, Antarctica, results from horizontal compressive forces. Examples of the densification of surface snows of the Ross Ice Shelf by this means are also given. Such density changes should be expected in any area where either of the principal horizontal strain-rates is negative.
Recent studies point to overlap between neuropsychiatric disorders in symptomatology and genetic aetiology.
To systematically investigate genomics overlap between childhood and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD).
Analysis of whole-genome blood gene expression and genetic risk scores of 318 individuals. Participants included individuals affected with adult ADHD (n = 93), childhood ADHD (n = 17), MDD (n = 63), ASD (n = 51), childhood dual diagnosis of ADHD–ASD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 78).
Weighted gene co-expression analysis results reveal disorder-specific signatures for childhood ADHD and MDD, and also highlight two immune-related gene co-expression modules correlating inversely with MDD and adult ADHD disease status. We find no significant relationship between polygenic risk scores and gene expression signatures.
Our results reveal disorder overlap and specificity at the genetic and gene expression level. They suggest new pathways contributing to distinct pathophysiology in psychiatric disorders and shed light on potential shared genomic risk factors.
Medullosa stands apart from most Paleozoic seed plants in its combination of large leaf area, complex vascular structure, and extremely large water-conducting cells. To investigate the hydraulic consequences of these anatomical features and to compare them with other seed plants, we have adapted a model of water transport in xylem cells that accounts for resistance to flow from the lumen, pits, and pit membranes, and that can be used to compare extinct and extant plants in a quantitative way. Application of this model to Medullosa, the Paleozoic coniferophyte Cordaites, and the extant conifer Pinus shows that medullosan tracheids had the capacity to transport water at volume flow rates more comparable to those of angiosperm vessels than to those characteristic of ancient and modern coniferophyte tracheids. Tracheid structure in Medullosa, including the large pit membrane area per tracheid and the high ratio of tracheid diameter to wall thickness, suggests that its xylem cells operated at significant risk of embolism and implosion, making this plant unlikely to survive significant water stress These features further suggest that tracheids could not have furnished significant structural support, requiring either that other tissues supported these plants or that at least some medullosans were vines. In combination with high tracheid conductivity, distinctive anatomical characters of Medullosa such as the anomalous growth of vascular cambium and the large number of leaf traces that enter each petiole base suggest vascular adaptations to meet the evapotranspiration demands of its large leaves. The evolution of highly efficient conducting cells dictates a need to supply structural support via other tissues, both in tracheid-based stem seed plants and in vessel-bearing angiosperms.
One measure used in the management of staphylococcal disease outbreaks in newborn nurseries is to obtain nasal cultures from nursery personnel and then treat nasal carriers with topical antibiotic ointments. Because recent infection control guidelines often omit reference to this measure, we surveyed current practices in larger hospitals in the U.S.A. Seventy-one percent of respondents indicated that they would obtain nasal cultures from personnel during a staphylococcal disease outbreak, and 40% indicated that they would prescribe topical antibiotic ointments for personnel with positive nasal cultures before the results of bacteriophage typing became known. Because little has been written about the efficacy of topical intranasal antibiotics within the past decade, we compared bacitracin ointment with a vancomycin ointment for treatment of the staphylococcal nasal carrier state. Both ointments reduced nasal carriage in the majority of instances. However, similar reduction was also observed in an untreated control group. The need for different approaches to the problem of nasal carriers is discussed.
An important question for international investors concerns the relationship between political institutions and property rights. Yet a debate remains over whether authoritarian institutions promote favorable investment climates. Using data on oil nationalization in a sample of autocracies, this study finds that legislatures are correlated with lower expropriation risk in non-personalist dictatorships, but a higher risk of nationalization in personalist regimes. The results show a consistent pattern between authoritarian institutions and property protections, for which context matters.
Data envelopment analysis is used to calculate technical, allocative, economic, and scale efficiencies for fields enrolled in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program. The results reveal most fields have high technical and scale efficiencies, implying inputs are used in minimum levels necessary to achieve given output levels and fields are close to optimal in size. However, most fields exhibit allocative and economic inefficiencies and do not use inputs in the right combinations necessary to achieve cost minimization. Tobit analysis indicated allocative and economic efficiencies could be improved with better variety selection and better irrigation management.
Comprising seven essays by learned contributors and controversially advocating a rationalist Christianity, this work became a sensation upon publication in 1860. Frederick Temple (1821–1902), later Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote on the cultural contributions of non-Christians; Roland Williams (1817–70), Professor of Hebrew at Lampeter, questioned Old Testament prophesies; Baden Powell (1796–1850), Oxford Professor of Geometry, challenged belief in miracles and embraced Darwinism; Henry Bristow Wilson (1803–88) questioned literal biblical history; the only lay contributor, Egyptologist Charles Wycliffe Goodwin (1817–78), embraced geology; Mark Pattison (1813–84), tutor at Lincoln College, wrote on the history of rationalist theology; and Benjamin Jowett (1817–93), Oxford Professor of Greek, advocated a historical reading of the Bible. Wilson and Williams were later found guilty of heresy by a Church court, though this was overturned on appeal. For readers interested in the theological controversies of the Victorian era, these essays remain invaluable.