To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Glufosinate is an effective postemergence herbicide, and overreliance on this herbicide for weed control is likely to increase and select for glufosinate-resistant weeds. Common assays to confirm herbicide resistance are dose–response and molecular sequencing techniques; both can require significant time, labor, unique technical equipment, and a specialized skillset to perform. As an alternative, we propose an image-based approach that uses a relatively inexpensive multispectral sensor designed for unmanned aerial vehicles to measure and quantify surface reflectance from glufosinate-treated leaf disks. Leaf disks were excised from a glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] varieties and placed into a 24-well plate containing eight different concentrations (0 to 10 mM) of glufosinate for 48 h. Multispectral images were collected after the 48-h incubation period across five discrete wave bands: blue (475 to 507 nm), green (560 to 587 nm), red (668to 682 nm), red edge (717 to 729 nm), and near infrared (842 to 899 nm). The green leaf index (GLI; a metric to measure chlorophyll content) was utilized to determine relationships between measured reflectance from the tested wave bands from the treated leaf disks and the glufosinate concentration. Clear differences of spectral reflectance were observed between the corn, cotton, and soybean leaf disks of the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible varieties at the 10 mM concentration for select wave bands and GLI. Leaf disks from two additional glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible varieties of each crop were subjected to a similar assay with two concentrations: 0 and 10 mM. No differences of spectral reflectance were observed from the corn and soybean varieties in all wave bands and the GLI. The leaf disks of the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible cotton varieties were spectrally distinct in the green, blue, and red-edge wave bands. The results provide a basis for rapidly detecting glufosinate-resistant plants via spectral reflectance. Future research will need to determine the glufosinate concentrations, useful wave bands, and susceptible/resistant thresholds for weeds that evolve resistance.
Comparing fitness of herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible weed biotypes is important for managing herbicide resistance. Previous research suggests there is little to no fitness penalty from amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene (a mechanism of glyphosate resistance) in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) in controlled studies in the greenhouse or growth chamber. A field study was conducted in North Carolina at three locations naturally infested with A. palmeri to determine vegetative, reproductive, and germination fitness of plants with and without EPSPS amplification grown season-long with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Seed number was not correlated with EPSPS copy number. However, when plants were binned into two groups, those having an EPSPS copy number ≥2 (relative to reference genes) and those having an EPSPS copy number <2, plant fresh weight and seed number were 1.4 and 1.6 times greater, respectively, for plants with fewer than 2 EPSPS copies. Amaranthus palmeri height and seed germination, and yield of cotton, did not differ when comparing the two binned groups. These data suggest that A. palmeri plants with EPSPS amplification are relatively less fit in the absence of glyphosate, but this reduced fitness does not translate into differences in interference with cotton.
Glufosinate is among the few remaining effective herbicides for postemergence weed control in North Carolina crops. The evolution of glufosinate resistance in key weeds is currently not widespread in North Carolina, but to better assess the current status of glufosinate effectiveness, surveys were distributed at Extension meetings in 2019 and 2020. The surveys were designed to provide information about North Carolina farmers’ perception of glufosinate and its use. Survey results indicate that many North Carolina farmers (≥26%) apply glufosinate at the correct timing (5- to 10-cm weeds). In addition, North Carolina farmers (≥22%) are applying glufosinate as a complementary herbicide to other efficacious herbicides and to control herbicide-resistant weeds, suggesting that glufosinate is part of a diverse chemical weed management plan. Conversely, survey findings indicated that some farmers (13% to 17%) rely exclusively on glufosinate for weed control. Additionally, 28% to 30% of farmers reported glufosinate control failures, and control failures were observed on several weed species among corn, cotton, and soybean crops. The results of the survey suggest that most North Carolina farmers are currently stewarding glufosinate, but they also support the need for Extension personnel to keep educating farmers on how to correctly use glufosinate to delay the evolution of glufosinate-resistant weeds. Semiannual surveys should be distributed to monitor where glufosinate control failures occur and the weed species not being controlled.
Studies were conducted in 2019 and 2020 in Lewiston, NC, to determine the crop response of 4-hydroxyphenylpyrivate dioxygenase (HPPD)-resistant cotton to isoxaflutole (IFT) and other cotton herbicides as part of a cotton weed management program that included herbicides applied preemergence, early postemergence (EPOST), and mid-postemergence (MPOST). IFT was applied PRE at 105 g ha−1 alone and in various combinations with acetochlor, diuron, fluometuron, fluridone, fomesafen, pendimethalin, and pyrithiobac. EPOST treatments included IFT at 53 or 105 g ha−1 alone or in combination with glyphosate or glufosinate, or dimethenamid-P + glufosinate. Glyphosate + glufosinate was applied MPOST to all treatments except the nontreated control. Cotton injury from IFT applied PRE was minimal (0% to 3%). Injury following EPOST application of dimethenamid-P + glufosinate ranged from 3% to 5% and 6% to 9% in 2019 and 2020, respectively. In both years, injury from IFT applied PRE followed by IFT applied EPOST never exceeded injury from IFT applied PRE followed by dimethenamid-P + glufosinate. Isoxaflutole applied PRE followed by IFT applied EPOST at 105 g ha−1 resulted in 0% to 2% cotton injury, indicating that IFT can be applied either PRE or EPOST with minimal risk to cotton. Late-season cotton height and cotton lint yield were not affected by any herbicide treatment. The experimental HPPD-resistant cotton cultivar was minimally injured by IFT applied PRE and EPOST, it tolerated standard cotton herbicides, and yield loss was not observed. Given these results, HPPD-resistant cotton and IFT may be integrated into cotton weed management systems with minimal risk for cotton injury and provide an additional effective mechanism of action for managing troublesome weeds in cotton.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) populations resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate are fairly common throughout the state of North Carolina (NC). This has led farm managers to rely more heavily on herbicides with other sites of action (SOA) for A. palmeri control, especially protoporphyrinogen oxidase and glutamine synthetase inhibitors. In the fall of 2016, seeds from A. palmeri populations were collected from the NC Coastal Plain, the state’s most prominent agricultural region. In separate experiments, plants with 2 to 4 leaves from the 110 populations were treated with field use rates of glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, fomesafen, mesotrione, or thifensulfuron-methyl. Percent visible control and survival were evaluated 3 wk after treatment. Survival frequencies were highest following glyphosate (99%) or thifensulfuron-methyl (96%) treatment. Known mutations conferring resistance to ALS inhibitors were found in populations surviving thifensulfuron-methyl application (Ala-122-Ser, Pro-197-Ser, Trp-574-Leu, and/or Ser-653-Asn), in addition to a new mutation (Ala-282-Asp) that requires further investigation. Forty-two populations had survivors after mesotrione application, with one population having 17% survival. Four populations survived fomesafen treatment, while none survived glufosinate. Dose–response studies showed an increase in fomesafen needed to kill 50% of two populations (LD50); however, these rates were far below the field use rate (less than 5 g ha−1). In two populations following mesotrione dose–response studies, a 2.4- to 3.3-fold increase was noted, with LD90 values approaching the field use rate (72.8 and 89.8 g ha−1). Screening of the progeny of individuals surviving mesotrione confirmed the presence of resistance alleles, as there were a higher number of survivors at the 1X rate compared with the parent population, confirming resistance to mesotrione. These data suggest A. palmeri resistant to chemistries other than glyphosate and thifensulfuron-methyl are present in NC, which highlights the need for weed management approaches to mitigate the evolution and spread of herbicide-resistant populations.
Overreliance on herbicides for weed control has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations. Farm managers should consider the long-term consequences of their short-term management decisions, especially when considering the soil weed seedbank. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine how soybean population and POST herbicide application timing affects in-season Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield, and (2) how those variables influence Palmer amaranth densities and cotton yields the following season. Soybeans were planted (19-cm row spacing) at a low-, medium-, and high-density population (268,000, 546,000, and 778,000 plants ha–1, respectively). Fomesafen and clethodim (280 and 210 g ai ha–1, respectively) were applied at the VE, V1, or V2 to V3 soybean growth stage. Nontreated plots were also included to assess the effect of soybean population alone. The following season, cotton was planted into these plots so as to understand the effects of soybean planting population on Palmer amaranth densities in the subsequent crop. When an herbicide application occurred at the V1 or V2 to V3 soybean stage, weed control in the high-density soybean population increased 17% to 23% compared to the low-density population. Economic return was not influenced by soybean population and was increased 72% to 94% with herbicide application compared to no treatment. In the subsequent cotton crop, Palmer amaranth densities were 24% to 39% lower 3 wk after planting when following soybean sprayed with herbicides compared to soybean without herbicides. Additionally, Palmer amaranth densities in cotton were 19% lower when soybean was treated at the VE stage compared to later stages. Thus, increasing soybean population can improve Palmer amaranth control without adversely affecting economic returns and can reduce future weed densities. Reducing the weed seedbank and selection pressure from herbicides are critical in mitigating resistance evolution.
A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to determine foliar efficacy of halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D, or dicamba applied alone and in combination with glyphosate at preplant burndown timing. Experiments were conducted near Painter, VA; Rocky Mount, NC; Jackson, NC; and Gates, NC. Control of horseweed, henbit, purple deadnettle, cutleaf evening primrose, curly dock, purple cudweed, and common chickweed were evaluated. Halauxifen-methyl applied at 5 g ae ha−1 controlled small and large horseweed 89% and 79%, respectively, and was similar to control by dicamba applied at 280 g ae ha−1. Both rates of 2,4-D—533 g ae ha−1(low rate [LR]) or 1,066 g ae ha−1 (high rate [HR])—were less effective than halauxifen-methyl and dicamba for controlling horseweed. Halauxifen-methyl was the only auxin herbicide to control henbit (90%) and purple deadnettle (99%). Cutleaf evening primrose was controlled 74% to 85%, 51%, and 4% by 2,4-D, dicamba, and halauxifen-methyl, respectively. Dicamba and 2,4-D controlled curly dock 59% to 70% and were more effective than halauxifen-methyl (5%). Auxin herbicides applied alone controlled purple cudweed and common chickweed 21% or less. With the exception of cutleaf evening primrose (35%) and curly dock (37%), glyphosate alone provided 95% or greater control of all weeds evaluated. These experiments demonstrate halauxifen-methyl effectively (≥79%) controls horseweed, henbit, and purple deadnettle, whereas common chickweed, curly dock, cutleaf evening primrose, and purple cudweed control by the herbicide is inadequate (≤7%).
Currently, there are seven herbicides labeled for U.S. tobacco production; however, additional modes of action are greatly needed in order to reduce the risk of herbicide resistance. Field experiments were conducted at five locations during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons to evaluate flue-cured tobacco tolerance to S-metolachlor applied pretransplanting incorporated (PTI) and pretransplanting (PRETR) at 1.07 (1×) and 2.14 (2×) kg ai ha−1. Severe injury was observed 6 wk after transplanting at the Whiteville environment in 2017 when S-metolachlor was applied PTI. End-of-season plant heights from PTI treatments at Whiteville were likewise reduced by 9% to 29% compared with nontreated controls, although cured leaf yield and value were reduced only when S-metolachlor was applied PTI at the 2× rate. Severe growth reduction was also observed at the Kinston location in 2018 where S-metolachlor was applied at the 2× rate. End-of-season plant heights were reduced 11% (PTI, 2×) and 20% (PRETR, 2×) compared with nontreated control plants. Cured leaf yield was reduced in Kinston when S-metolachlor was applied PRETR at the 2× rate; however, treatments did not impact cured leaf quality or value. Visual injury and reductions in stalk height, yield, quality, and value were not observed at the other three locations. Ultimately, it appears that injury potential from S-metolachlor is promoted by coarse soil texture and high early-season precipitation close to transplanting, both of which were documented at the Whiteville and Kinston locations. To reduce plant injury and the negative impacts to leaf yield and value, application rates lower than 1.07 kg ha−1 may be required in these scenarios.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth continues to be challenging to control across the U.S. cotton belt. Timely application of POST herbicides and herbicides applied at planting or during the season with residual activity are utilized routinely to control this weed. Although glyphosate controls large Palmer amaranth that is not GR, herbicides such as glufosinate used in resistance management programs for GR Palmer amaranth must be applied when weeds are small. Dicamba can complement both glyphosate and glufosinate in controlling GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes in resistant cultivars. Two studies were conducted to determine Palmer amaranth control, weed biomass, and cotton yield, as well as to estimate economic net return when herbicides were applied 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk after planting (WAP). In one experiment POST-only applications were made. In the second experiment PRE herbicides were included. In general, Palmer amaranth was controlled at least 98% by herbicides applied at least three times regardless of timing of application or herbicide sequence. Glyphosate plus dicamba applied at 4 and 5 WAP controlled Palmer amaranth similarly compared to three applications by 8 WAP; however, yield was reduced 23% because of early-season interference. The inclusion of PRE herbicides benefited treatments that did not include herbicides applied 2 or 3 WAP. Glyphosate plus dicamba applied as the only herbicides 5 WAP provided 69% control of Palmer amaranth. PRE herbicides increased control to 96% for this POST treatment. Economic returns were similar when three or more POST applications were applied, with or without PRE herbicides.
Cover crops provide a number of agronomic benefits, including weed suppression, which is important as cases of herbicide resistance continue to rise. To effectively suppress weeds, high cover crop biomass is needed, which necessitates later termination timing. Cover crop termination is important to mitigate potential planting issues and prevent surviving cover crop competition with cash crops. Field studies were conducted in Virginia to determine the most effective herbicide options alone or combined with glyphosate or paraquat to terminate a range of cover crop species. Results revealed that grass cover crop species were controlled (94% to 98%) by glyphosate alone 4 wk after application (WAA). Overall, legume species varied in response to the single active-ingredient treatments, and control increased with the addition of glyphosate or paraquat. Mixes with glyphosate provided better control of crimson clover and hairy vetch by 7% to 8% compared with mixes containing paraquat 4 WAA. Mix partner did not influence control of Austrian winter pea. No treatment adequately controlled rapeseed in this study, with a maximum of 58% control observed with single active-ingredient treatments and 62% control with mixes. Height reduction for all cover crop species supports visible rating data. Rapeseed should be terminated when smaller, which could negate weed suppressive benefits from this cover crop species. Growers should consider herbicide selection and termination timing in their cover crop plan to ensure effective termination.
Residual herbicides applied to summer cash crops have the potential to injure subsequent winter annual cover crops, yet little information is available to guide growers’ choices. Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Blacksburg and Suffolk, Virginia, to determine carryover of 30 herbicides commonly used in corn, soybean, or cotton on wheat, barley, cereal rye, oats, annual ryegrass, forage radish, Austrian winter pea, crimson clover, hairy vetch, and rapeseed cover crops. Herbicides were applied to bare ground either 14 wk before cover crop planting for a PRE timing or 10 wk for a POST timing. Visible injury was recorded 3 and 6 wk after planting (WAP), and cover crop biomass was collected 6 WAP. There were no differences observed in cover crop biomass among herbicide treatments, despite visible injury that suggested some residual herbicides have the potential to effect cover crop establishment. Visible injury on grass cover crop species did not exceed 20% from any herbicide. Fomesafen resulted in the greatest injury recorded on forage radish, with greater than 50% injury in 1 site-year. Trifloxysulfuron and atrazine resulted in greater than 20% visible injury on forage radish. Trifloxysulfuron resulted in the greatest injury (30%) observed on crimson clover in 1 site-year. Prosulfuron and isoxaflutole significantly injured rapeseed (17% to 21%). Results indicate that commonly used residual herbicides applied in the previous cash crop growing season result in little injury on grass cover crop species, and only a few residual herbicides could potentially affect the establishment of a forage radish, crimson clover, or rapeseed cover crop.
Rapeseed is a popular cover crop choice due to its deep-growing taproot, which creates soil macropores and increases water infiltration. Brassicaceae spp. that are mature or at later growth stages can be troublesome to control. Experiments were conducted in Delaware and Virginia to evaluate herbicides for terminating rapeseed cover crops. Two separate experiments, adjacent to each other, were established to evaluate rapeseed termination by 14 herbicide treatments at two timings. Termination timings included an early and late termination to simulate rapeseed termination prior to planting corn and soybean, respectively, for the region. At three locations where rapeseed height averaged 12 cm at early termination and 52 cm at late termination, glyphosate + 2,4-D was most effective, controlling rapeseed 96% 28 d after early termination (DAET). Paraquat + atrazine + mesotrione (92%), glyphosate + saflufenacil (91%), glyphosate + dicamba (91%), and glyphosate (86%) all provided at least 80% control 28 DAET. Rapeseed biomass followed a similar trend. Paraquat + 2,4-D (85%), glyphosate + 2,4-D (82%), and paraquat + atrazine + mesotrione (81%) were the only treatments that provided at least 80% control 28 d after late termination (DALT). Herbicide efficacy was less at Painter in 2017, where rapeseed height was 41 cm at early termination, and 107 cm at late termination. No herbicide treatments controlled rapeseed >80% 28 DAET or 28 DALT at this location. Herbicide termination of rapeseed is best when the plant is small; termination of large rapeseed plants may require mechanical of other methods beyond herbicides.
Residual herbicides are routinely applied to control troublesome weeds in pumpkin production. Fluridone and acetochlor, Groups 12 and 15 herbicides, respectively, provide broad-spectrum PRE weed control. Field research was conducted in Virginia and New Jersey to evaluate pumpkin tolerance and weed control to PRE herbicides. Treatments consisted of fomesafen at two rates, ethalfluralin, clomazone, halosulfuron, fluridone, S-metolachlor, acetochlor emulsifiable concentrate (EC), acetochlor microencapsulated (ME), and no herbicide. At one site, fluridone, acetochlor EC, acetochlor ME, and halosulfuron injured pumpkin 81%, 39%, 34%, and 35%, respectively, at 14 d after planting (DAP); crop injury at the second site was 40%, 8%, 19%, and 33%, respectively. Differences in injury between the two sites may have been due to the amount and timing of rainfall after herbicides were applied. Fluridone provided 91% control of ivyleaf morningglory and 100% control of common ragweed at 28 DAP. Acetochlor EC controlled redroot pigweed 100%. Pumpkin treated with S-metolachlor produced the most yield (10,764 fruits ha–1) despite broadcasting over the planted row; labeling requires a directed application to row-middles. A separate study specifically evaluated fluridone applied PRE at 42, 84, 126, 168, 252, 336, and 672 g ai ha–1. Fluridone resulted in pumpkin injury ≥95% when applied at rates of ≥168 g ai ha–1; significant yield loss was noted when the herbicide was applied at rates >42 g ai ha–1. We concluded that fluridone and acetochlor formulations are unacceptable candidates for pumpkin production.
Auxin herbicides are used in combinations to control glyphosate-resistant horseweed preplant burndown. Herbicide labels for 2,4-D–containing products require a 30-d rotation interval for planting cotton cultivars not resistant to 2,4-D. Dicamba labels require an accumulation of 2.5 cm of rain plus 21 d per 280 g ae ha–1 rotation interval for planting cotton cultivars not resistant to dicamba. Previous research has shown that cotton injury caused by dicamba applied 14 d before planting was transient with little effect on cotton yield, whereas 2,4-D has little effect on cotton when applied 7 d prior to planting. Injury caused by dicamba and 2,4-D is inversely related to rainfall received between herbicide application and cotton planting. Experiments were conducted to evaluate cotton tolerance to halauxifen-methyl, a new Group 4 herbicide, applied at intervals shorter than labeled requirements. Experiments were established near Painter and Suffolk, VA, and Belvidere, Clayton, Eure, Lewiston, and Rocky Mount, NC, during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. Herbicide treatments included halauxifen, dicamba, and 2,4-D applied 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 wk before planting (WBP). Visible estimates of cotton growth reduction and total injury were collected 1, 2, and 4 wk after cotton emergence (WAE). Cotton stand and percentage of plants with distorted leaves were recorded 2 and 4 WAE. Cotton plant heights were recorded 4 and 8 WAE. Halauxifen was less injurious (9%) than dicamba (26%) or 2,4-D (21%) 2 WAE when herbicides were applied 0 WBP. Cotton stand reduction 2 WAE by halauxifen was less than 2,4-D and dicamba when applied 0 WBP. Injury observed from herbicides applied 1, 2, 3, and 4 WBP was minor, and no significant differences in cotton stand were observed. Early-season cotton injury was transient, and seed cotton yield was unaffected by any treatment.
In 2015, winter wheat growers in Virginia reported commercial failures of thifensulfuron to control mouse-ear cress. This was the first reported case of field-evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) resistance in mouse-ear cress, so research was conducted to evaluate alternative herbicide options as well as to document potential yield loss in winter wheat from mouse-ear cress. Efficacy studies were conducted at three site-years in 2015 to 2016 and 2016 to 2017 as well as a POST greenhouse trial. In the PRE study, flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone, saflufenacil, and metribuzin resulted in more than 80% mouse-ear cress control 15 wk after planting across all sites with no observable wheat injury. No differences were observed in wheat yield in two of three sites in the PRE herbicide study; yield differences were attributed to common chickweed and not to mouse-ear cress. In the POST herbicide study, 2,4-D, dicamba, and metribuzin resulted in greater than 75% control in the field and greenhouse. Metribuzin, dicamba, and pyroxsulam resulted in crop injury 3 wk after treatment at some sites, but injury was transient. Yield from all POST treatments was similar to the nontreated plots. No yield loss was observed by mouse-ear cress densities greater than 300 plants m–2, indicating that mouse-ear cress is not very competitive with winter wheat. Growers should make herbicide decisions based on other weeds in the field and can incorporate the aforementioned herbicides for mouse-ear cress control.
Cotton growers commonly use glufosinate-based programs to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Palmer amaranth must be small (≤7.5 cm) for consistent control by glufosinate, and growers often miss the optimum application timing. XtendFlex™ cotton may provide growers a tool to control larger Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate, dicamba, and glufosinate plus dicamba were compared for Palmer amaranth control in a rescue situation. Herbicides were applied to 16- to 23-cm weeds (POST-1) followed by a second application (POST-2) 12 d later. Glufosinate-ammonium at 590 g ai ha−1 plus dicamba diglycolamine salt at 560 g ae ha−1 POST-1 followed by glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2 was more effective than glufosinate at 880 g ha−1 POST-1 followed by glufosinate at 590 g ha−1 POST-2 or dicamba alone applied twice. Following a directed layby application of glyphosate, diuron, and S-metolachlor 14 d after POST-2, Palmer amaranth was controlled 99% by any system containing dicamba or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-1 followed by dicamba, glufosinate, or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2 compared with 87% to 91% control by glufosinate alone applied twice. Cotton height and number of main stem nodes at layby were reduced in systems with dicamba only POST-1 followed by dicamba or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2, presumably due to competition from the slowly dying Palmer amaranth with dicamba only POST-1. These treatments also delayed cotton maturity and reduced lint yield compared with systems containing glufosinate plus dicamba at POST-1.
Glufosinate controls glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, but growers struggle to make timely applications. XtendFlexTM cotton, resistant to dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate, may provide growers an option to control larger weeds. Palmer amaranth control and cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality were evaluated in a rescue situation created by delaying the first POST herbicide application. Treatments consisted of two POST applications of dicamba plus glufosinate, separated by 14 d, with the first application timely (0-d delay) or delayed 7, 14, 21, or 28 d. All treatments included a layby application of diuron plus MSMA. Palmer amaranth, 14 d after first POST, was controlled 99, 96, 89, 75, and 73% with 0-, 7-, 14-, 21-, or 28-d delays, respectively. Control increased following the second application, and the weed was controlled at least 94% following layby. Cotton yield decreased linearly as first POST application was delayed, with yield reductions ranging from 8 to 42% with 7- to 28-d delays. Delays in first POST application delayed cotton maturity but did not affect fiber quality.
Palmer amaranth is the most economically damaging glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in the southern United States. An understanding of the basic biology, including relative growth and competitiveness of GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth phenotypes from a segregating population collected from the same geographical location, may yield information helpful in the management of resistant populations. A segregating population of Palmer amaranth collected in North Carolina during 2010 was used as a plant source for both GR and GS traits. Research was conducted in the greenhouse to compare the following: level of resistance and shikimate accumulation in GR and GS phenotypes following glyphosate application; interference from GR and GS phenotypes on early-season vegetative growth of corn, cotton, and peanut; effect of various durations of imposed drought stress on GR and GS phenotypes; and response of GR and GS phenotypes to POST-applied herbicides. The GR50 (glyphosate rate providing 50% reduction in shoot dry biomass) was 17 times greater with the GR phenotype compared with the GS phenotype. Shikimate accumulated in both GR and GS phenotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plants. The GR and GS phenotypes responded similarly when subjected to drought stress; grown with corn, cotton, and peanut; or treated with 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, fomesafen, glufosinate, paraquat, tembotrione, and thifensulfuron. These results indicate that in the absence of glyphosate selection pressure, resistance to glyphosate does not influence the growth and competitiveness of GR and GS Palmer amaranth phenotypes collected from the same geographical location.
Flumioxazin and fomesafen are commonly used to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton and other crops, thus increasing risk to select for Palmer amaranth biotypes resistant to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors. A field experiment was conducted to determine the potential for fluridone and acetochlor to substitute for soil-applied PPO inhibitors in a Palmer amaranth management system with glufosinate applied twice POST and diuron plus MSMA POST-directed in conservation tillage cotton. Fluridone and flumioxazin applied preplant 23 to 34 d prior to planting were similarly effective. Fluridone and acetochlor plus diuron applied PRE controlled Palmer amaranth as well as fomesafen plus diuron PRE. All systems with preplant and PRE herbicides followed by glufosinate POST and diuron plus MSMA layby controlled Palmer amaranth well. Cotton yield did not differ among herbicide treatments. This research demonstrates that fluridone and acetochlor can substitute for soil-applied PPO-inhibiting herbicides in management systems for Palmer amaranth.