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This article reviews important components to consider when evaluating the relationship of psychotic and mood disorder symptoms to violence. Particular attention is given to assessing persecutory delusions and command auditory hallucinations. Clinical implications of research findings to evaluating violence risk in psychiatric patients are reviewed.
To understand the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections among nursing home (NH) residents and the potential for their spread between NHs and acute care hospitals (ACHs).
Descriptive analyses of MDRO infections among NH residents using all NH residents in the Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 between October 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011.
Analysis of MDS data revealed a very high volume of bidirectional patient flow between NHs and ACHs, indicating the need to study MDRO infections in NHs as well as in hospitals. A total of 4.24% of NH residents had an active MDRO diagnosis on at least 1 MDS assessment during the study period. This rate significantly varied by sex, age, urban/rural status, and state. Approximately 2% of NH discharges to ACHs involved a resident with an active diagnosis of infection due to MDROs. Conversely, 1.8% of NH admissions from an ACH involved a patient with an active diagnosis of infection due to MDROs. Among residents who acquired an MDRO infection during the study period, 57% became positive in the NH, 41% in the ACH, and 2% in other settings (eg, at a private home or apartment).
Even though NHs are the most likely setting where residents would acquire MDROs after admission to an NH (accounting for 57% of cases), a significant fraction of NH residents acquire MDRO infection at ACHs (41%). Thus, effective MDRO infection control for NH residents requires simultaneous, cooperative interventions among NHs and ACHs in the same community.
The electrical conductivity of most glasses at a temperature of about 100°C is barely a measurable quantity.
For this reason, and on account of the fact that glass conforms to the general rule applicable to non-conductors in showing an increase of resistivity for a fall of temperature, this material has come to be regarded .as practically incapable when cold of allowing the passage of an electric current.
With a view to the further study of electrical conduction in glass, and also because of certain experimental advantages which a conducting glass would possess, I have endeavoured to produce a transparent vitreous substance having that property.
The historical and theoretical resonances between the work of Theodor Adorno and that of Luigi Nono have hitherto remained underexplored. In this article a debate is constructed between the two figures concerning the politics of space in advanced music in order to question a frequently held opposition between ‘autonomous’ and ‘political’ art. Nono can be seen to interweave German and Italian traditions of historical materialism, responding simultaneously to the issues of both reification and imperialism. This is drawn out by way of Adorno's evolving attitude towards the younger generation at Darmstadt, via his revised understanding of the relationship between music and painting. Conversely the solidarity Nono maintained with contemporary spaces of resistance while not compromising his musical language promises to expand Adorno's aesthetic theory.
Glasses of the system AgI-Ag2O-(0.95B2O3:0.05SiO2) have been formed by microwave processing using a domestic multi-mode oven operating at 900 watts and 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating resulted in rapid melting times with homogeneity in the quenched glasses equivalent to or better than conventional melting at 730°C. The glass forming region in this pseudo-ternary system is compared with the conventionally melted glass forming region in the system AgI-Ag2O-B2O3. A reversible color difference has been observed between glasses conventionally melted and those melted by microwave for all glass compositions in our system.
This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine if thermal deicing methods (hot air, hot water, hot glycol, or radiative heat) would damage the composite materials in helicopter blades. Samples made from Blackhawk helicopter blades were thermally cycled in the regime of the temperatures of thermal deicing methods and then mechanically load tested. The strength reduction was compared with the number of thermal cycling and the temperatures of thermal cycling. The strength results and the modes of failure indicate that damages indeed do develop in the composites, especially along the bond line of the composite skin and the nomex core of the blade structure, and mechanical strength is reduced.
Little research has focussed on nursing home residents with a history including a non-dementia related chronic mental illness (HCMI) that manifested before placement in a nursing home. Data from the 1993 Minimum Data Set for Nursing Home Resident Assessment and Care Screening (MDS) on over 70,000 residents in Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, and South Dakota were used to investigate differences in characteristics and care between these residents and more traditional residents. HCMI residents were more likely to be under 65 years of age, male, Medicaid recipients, less functionally impaired, to exhibit higher levels of problem behaviours, and to receive psychoactive medications and psychological therapy, though therapy prevalence rates were low. These data may indicate that appropriate care for HCMI residents is a concern.
Nursing homes in the United States have for over 40-years been riddled with evidence of poor performance. To combat problems in this industry, state and federal governments developed an elaborate monitoring and regulatory structure. At the same time, an important citizens' movement involving nursing-home consumer advocacy groups (CAGs) came to life. This paper presents the results of a postal survey of 47 active nursing-home consumer advocacy groups. They indicate that the majority of these organisations were started by an individual dissatisfied with the care provided to a family member. The political arena in which these organisations were most active was State legislatures. Though they varied considerably, the average CAG operated on a thin financial margin, largely supported by member contributions and donations. These organisations defined their success in terms of their ability to generate policy changes at the State level. Unfortunately, as they pursued these changes, they often failed to develop the organisational infrastructure necessary to assure the CAGs' continued operation. When CAGs ceased operations, it was in most cases the loss of the organisation's original leader or the cumulative effects of the constant struggle to maintain adequate financial resources.
Field experiments were conducted at Ashland Bottoms in northeastern Kansas and at Hays in western Kansas in 2001, 2002, and 2003 to determine the response of soil microbial and nematode communities to different herbicides and tillage practices under a glyphosate-resistant cropping system. Conventional herbicide treatments were a tank mixture of cloransulam plus S-metolachlor plus sulfentrazone for soybean and a commercially available mixture of acetochlor and atrazine for corn. Glyphosate was applied at 1.12 kg ai ha−1 when weeds were 10 or 20 cm tall in both corn and soybean. Soil samples were collected monthly at Ashland Bottoms during the growing period for soil microbial biomass (SMB) carbon determination. In addition, substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and BIOLOG substrate utilization were determined at the end of the growing season each year at Ashland Bottoms, and nematode populations were determined at the beginning and the end of the growing season at both sites. Direct effects of glyphosate rates on soil microbial and nematode communities were also studied in a controlled environment. Values for SMB carbon, SIR, and BIOLOG substrate utilization were not altered by glyphosate. Nematode community response to the glyphosate treatment was similar under both conventional tillage and no-till environments. Total nematode densities were similar with the glyphosate and conventional herbicide treatments. SMB carbon and BIOLOG substrate utilization did not differ between tillage treatments. Nematode densities were greater under conventional tillage than in the no-till system. This study showed that soil health when glyphosate was applied in a glyphosate-resistant cropping system was similar to that of cropping systems that used conventional herbicides.
We present a case of meningitis after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement subsequent to acoustic neuroma resection and cranioplasty. Four days following PEG tube placement the patient developed Enterobacter aerogenes meningitis, requiring explantation of infected cranioplasty material. His condition subsequently improved. Etiology and future intervention strategies are discussed (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:780-782).
Genetic variation in the susceptibility of cattle to Mycobacterium bovis infection exists in differences between families and species, but not breeds. Susceptibility to M. bovis infection increases with age of cattle. Natural exposure to M. bovis or environmental mycobacteria may assist in the development of specific immunity, but there is no direct evidence for such immunological priming of tuberculosis resistance in cattle. This has, however, been demonstrated in humans and other animals. Since non-specific mechanisms have a role in protective immunity, developing an effective vaccine will be difficult, even though some protection of other species has been achieved. Immunological suppression in the periparturient period can produce anergic reactors, which may act as a constant source of infection for cattle-to-cattle transmission. Circumstantial evidence suggests that an adequate intake of mineral, vitamin and protein reduces the susceptibility of cattle. Although weather patterns have been implicated in the susceptibility of herds to M. bovis infection, there is insufficient information to determine the risk factors precisely. It is concluded that some reduction in the susceptibility of cattle to M. bovis infection can be achieved by modifications to the management system to minimize risk factors, but that a considerable amount of further research is required.
The final section of the book is an updated report on a Round Table discussion which was held at the conclusion of the conference on ‘World Capital Markets and Financial Crises’, University ofWarwick (24–25 July 1998). The discussion produced a comprehensive review of thinking about the crisis, which is why we report it in full here. Richard Portes talked about early-warning indicators and LOLR facilities. Phillip Turner spoke about risk in financial markets and the role of the public sector in the context of such risk. Finally, Charles Goodhart talked about the impact of external events on the exchange rate and also on the treatment of foreign currency debt, both of which have implications for the IMF programmes.
Robert Rubin says that ‘The purpose of IMF packages is to help Korea, a by-product is that we help investors and creditors.’ Do we really agree with this? Or do we think that IMF packages do this? Or do they mainly create moral hazard? Start with Mexico. Of course it is impossible to demonstrate from the data that the Mexican bail-out, through creating moral hazard, contributed to what we have observed in Asia. But I believe passionately that it did. I would be delighted if anybody here could suggest ways in which we could observe in the data the effects of the moral hazard that such rescues create. But what we have observed in the Asian sequence is the creation of further moral hazard.
Take the Korean bail-out. What happened? During three weeks in December 1997 the IMF package of 10 bn dollars went directly into reducing the short-term exposure of the banks.