Near the end of the first millennium of the Common Era, it is said, Khaldi, a goat herd living in the Horn of Africa, noticed that his animals were particularly frisky after consuming the red berries of a particular bush. The first hot beverage of “kahva” (meaning ‘against sleep’) was devised shortly thereafter either by monks, who learned of the beans from Khaldi, or by a Muslim dervish who, banished and starving, tried to soften the berries in water upon instructions from God (Starbucks, 2004; Anonymous, 2004). Soon Yemeni traders were exporting coffee beans from the port of Al-Mukha (hence: mocha), under a carefully protected monopoly.(Tchibo, nd)
In 1875 in Leipzig, Germany, Wilhelm Wundt established a laboratory for using the experimental method of physics to isolate and measure what were presumed to be the elements of sensation, perception, and ultimately the functioning of the psyche. His goal was to “mark out a new domain of science” (Wundt, 1874, cited in Schultz, 1975, p. 53). In this historical moment, it is said, lies the origin of modern psychology – scientific, empirical psychology, beyond the mere logic of the philosopher (Boring, 1950). In 1879, Leipzig University incorporated Wundt's laboratory, and in recognition of that event 100 years later, the American Psychological Association (APA) declared the centenary of the field itself. The APA was actually formed in 1892, with G. Stanley Hall presiding over a membership of 42 persons who were engaged in the advancement of psychology as a science (American Psychological Association, 2003).