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Series of 7-day Product Consistency Tests (PCTs) were conducted with ARM-1 glass using the -100+200 mesh size fraction and several sub-fractions to measure the sensitivity of the test response to the distribution of particle sizes. Separate samples were prepared for testing by dry sieving and wet sieving, and the particle size distributions and PCT responses were measured for each fraction. Triplicate tests were conducted at 90 °C using a water/glass mass ratio of 10.0 with each size fraction. Test results are evaluated regarding the sensitivity of the test response to the particle size distributions and, conversely, the uncertainty due to calculating the surface areas (and dissolution rates) by modeling the particles as spheres. These analyses show the solution feedback effects of dissolved glass constituents (i.e., the reaction affinity) counteract the effects of the glass surface areas provided by different particle size distributions on the test response. The opposing effects of the surface area on the amount of glass dissolved and on the glass dissolution rate moderate the sensitivity of the PCT response to the particle size distribution.
The necessity to a priori predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to a variety of modeling approaches based primarily on solution (leachate) concentrations. The glass composition and structure control the leachate and the gel compositions which in turn control what reaction products form: the leached layer is a hydrogel and reacts with the solution (leachate) to form secondary phases some of which cause accelerated glass dissolution which is undesirable. Glasses with molar excess alkali that is not bound to glass forming (Al,Fe,B)O4 structural groups in the glass resume accelerated leaching. The hydrogels of the glasses that resume accelerated leaching at long times contain excess alkali and the leachates contain excess strong base, [SB]ex. The [SB]ex further accelerates aluminosilicate gel aging into analcime with time. Glasses with no excess molar structural alkali do not resume accelerated leaching: the glass generates weak acids, [WA], in the leachate favoring hydrogel aging into clays. These data indicate that the gel layer transforms to secondary phases in situ in response to interactions with the chemistry of a continuously evolving leachate.
This is a two-year elementary college physics course for students majoring in science and engineering. The intention of the writers has been to present elementary physics as far as possible in the way in which it is used by physicists working on the forefront of their field. We have sought to make a course which would vigorously emphasize the foundations of physics. Our specific objectives were to introduce coherently into an elementary curriculum the ideas of special relativity, of quantum physics, and of statistical physics.
This course is intended for any student who has had a physics course in high school. A mathematics course including the calculus should be taken at the same time as this course.
There are several new college physics courses under development in the United States at this time. The idea of making a new course has come to many physicists, affected by the needs both of the advancement of science and engineering and of the increasing emphasis on science in elementary schools and in high schools. Our own course was conceived in a conversation between Philip Morrison of Cornell University and C. Kittel late in 1961. We were encouraged by John Mays and his colleagues of the National Science Foundation and by Walter C. Michels, then the Chairman of the Commission on College Physics. An informal committee was formed to guide the course through the initial stages.
Despite major efforts to understand and conserve Madagascar’s unique biodiversity, relatively little is known about the island’s carnivore populations. We therefore deployed 43 camera-trap stations in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar during June–August 2007 to evaluate the efficacy of this method for studying Malagasy carnivores and to estimate the relative abundance and density of carnivores in the eastern rainforest. A total of 755 camera-trap nights provided 1,605 photographs of four endemic carnivore species (fossa Cryptoprocta ferox, Malagasy civet Fossa fossana, ring-tailed mongoose Galidia elegans and broad-striped mongoose Galidictus fasciata), the exotic Indian civet Viverricula indica and the domestic dog Canis familiaris. We identified 38 individual F. fossana and 10 individual C. ferox. We estimated density using both capture-recapture analyses, with a buffer of full mean-maximum-distance-moved, and a spatially-explicit maximum-likelihood method (F. fossana: 3.03 and 2.23 km-2, respectively; C. ferox: 0.15 and 0.17 km-2, respectively). Our estimated densities of C. ferox in rainforest are lower than published estimates for conspecifics in the western dry forests. Within Ranomafana National Park species richness of native carnivores did not vary among trail systems located in secondary, selectively-logged and undisturbed forest. These results provide the first assessment of carnivore population parameters using camera-traps in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar.
A vitrification technology utilizing a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass is a viable option for dispositioning excess weapons-useable plutonium that is not suitable for processing into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A significant effort to develop a glass formulation and vitrification process to immobilize plutonium was completed in the mid-1990s. The LaBS glass formulation was found to be capable of immobilizing in excess of 10 wt % Pu and to be tolerant of a range of impurities. A more detailed study is now needed to quantify the ability of the glass to accommodate the anticipated impurities associated with the Pu feeds now slated for disposition.
The database of Pu feeds was reviewed to identify impurity species and concentration ranges for these impurities. Based on this review, a statistically designed test matrix of glass compositions was developed to evaluate the ability of the LaBS glass to accommodate the impurities. Sixty surrogate LaBS glass compositions were prepared in accordance with the statistically designed test matrix. The heterogeneity (e.g. degree of crystallinity) and durability (as measured by the Product Consistency Test – Method A (PCT–A)) of the glasses were used to assess the effects of impurities on glass quality.
I claim that our desire to be special motivates us to suppose that if we were not God created, we must be self-created. I also claim that Stephen J Gould's claims about punctuated equilibrium, the absence of directional selection, and exaptations, when taken together, lead to kind of secular creationism. I introduce the notion of “adaptive effects” and argue that a focus on the actual physiological and psychological mechanisms that produce adaptations provides a way out of the exaptation dilemma.
Why is female violence a taboo? We suggest that both men and
women actively contribute to the creation of this stigma. Men may
benefit because nonaggressive women may make better mothers and
be more faithful and fertile. Females may benefit by downplaying their
aggressive nature because they will be perceived as more valuable
mates and because they will be more accepted within female social
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch ofradioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter feed . This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass.
To evaluate the efficacy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recommended infection control measures implemented in response to an outbreak of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB).
Retrospective cohort studies of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and healthcare workers. The study period (January 1989 through September 1992) was divided into period I, before changes in infection control; period II, after aggressive use of administrative controls (eg, rapid placement of TB patients or suspected TB patients in single-patient rooms); and period III, while engineering changes were made (eg, improving ventilation in TB isolation rooms).
A New York City hospital that was the site of one of the first reported outbreaks of MDR-TB among AIDS patients in the United States.
All AIDS patients admitted during periods I and II. Healthcare workers on nine inpatient units with TB patients and six without TB patients.
The epidemic (38 patients) waned during period II and only one MDR-TB patient presented during period III. The MDR-TB attack rate among AIDS patients hospitalized on the same ward on the same days as an infectious MDR-TB patient was 8.8% (19 of 216) during period I, decreasing to 2.6% (5 of 193; P= 0.01) during period II. In a small group of healthcare workers with tuberculin skin test data, conversions during periods II through III were higher on wards with than without TB patients (5 of 29 versus 0 of 15; P= 0.15), although the difference was not statistically significant.
Transmission of MDR-TB among AIDS patients decreased markedly after enforcement of readily implementable administrative measures, ending the outbreak. However, tuberculin skin-test conversions among healthcare workers may not have been prevented by these measures. CDC guidelines for prevention of nosocomial transmission of TB should be implemented fully at all US hospitals.
A four-state study was initiated in 1988 to evaluate the influence of cultivation frequency and initiation on the cotton plant. When cultivations were initiated at 1 or 2 wk after emergence and cultivated weekly at a frequency of zero, one, two, four, or six times, seed cotton yields were not affected on a consistent basis. When averaged over cultivation frequency, seed cotton yields were increased for three of nine year-locations when cultivations were initiated at 2 wk after emergence when compared with 1 wk after emergence. At two locations, when seed cotton yields were averaged over initiation timing, it was shown that only two cultivations were necessary to achieve optimum seed cotton yields.
Problems in the delivery of community services to rural areas have received increasing attention in recent years. One concern has centered on questions of use, availability, accessibility, satisfaction, and problems in use by consumers, while a second focus has been on provider organization. A third important focus has been on the role of services in development of a community. Does service “mix” (amount of services provided in a community) have an effect on growth or decline of the community? Conversely, does growth or decline of the community have an effect on service mix? These are at least three more specific dimensions of the larger complex issue of service delivery for rural areas.
The United States Army is now engaged in the selection of a Light Observation Helicopter (commonly referred to as the LOH) from three competing designs. It is estimated that large quantities will be procured to fulfil an operational requirement during the 1966-1975 time period. The paper describes the overall programme by examining the basic requirement and the development concept. In addition, a description of the actual hardware being developed is given and some economic considerations of the modernisation of the observation fleet are discussed.
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