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In response to concerns about acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant weeds in wheat production systems, we explored the efficacy of managing Bromus spp., downy and Japanese bromes, in a winter wheat system using alternative herbicide treatments applied in either fall or spring. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada over three growing seasons (2012–2014) to compare the efficacy of pyroxasulfone (a soil-applied very-long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor; WSSA Group 15) and flumioxazin (a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor; WSSA Group 14) against industry-standard ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy and Japanese brome control. Winter wheat injury from herbicide application was minor, with the exception of flucarbazone application at Scott. Bromus spp. control was greatest with pyroxsulam and all herbicide treatments containing pyroxasulfone. Downy and Japanese bromes were controlled least by thiencarbazone and flumioxazin, respectively, whereas Bromus spp. had intermediate responses to the other herbicides tested. Herbicides applied in fall resulted in reduced winter wheat yield relative to the spring applications. Overall, pyroxasulfone or pyroxsulam provided the most efficacious Bromus spp. control compared with the other herbicides and consistently maintained optimal winter wheat yields. Therefore, pyroxasulfone could facilitate management of Bromus spp. resistant to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat in the southern growing regions of western Canada. Improved weed control and delayed herbicide resistance may be achieved when pyroxasulfone is applied in combination with flumioxazin.
To evaluate whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a molecular typing tool for MRSA outbreak investigation.
Investigation of MRSA colonization/infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over 3 years (2014–2017).
Single-center level IV NICU.
NICU infants and healthcare workers (HCWs).
Infants were screened for MRSA using a swab of the anterior nares, axilla, and groin, initially by targeted (ring) screening, and later by universal weekly screening. Clinical cultures were collected as indicated. HCWs were screened once using swabs of the anterior nares. MRSA isolates were typed using WGS with core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Colonized and infected infants and HCWs were decolonized. Control strategies included reinforcement of hand hygiene, use of contact precautions, cohorting, enhanced environmental cleaning, and remodeling of the NICU.
We identified 64 MRSA-positive infants: 53 (83%) by screening and 11 (17%) by clinical cultures. Of 85 screened HCWs, 5 (6%) were MRSA positive. WGS of MRSA isolates identified 2 large clusters (WGS groups 1 and 2), 1 small cluster (WGS group 3), and 8 unrelated isolates. PFGE failed to distinguish WGS group 2 and 3 isolates. WGS groups 1 and 2 were codistributed over time. HCW MRSA isolates were primarily in WGS group 1. New infant MRSA cases declined after implementation of the control interventions.
We identified 2 contemporaneous MRSA outbreaks alongside sporadic cases in a NICU. WGS was used to determine strain relatedness at a higher resolution than PFGE and was useful in guiding efforts to control MRSA transmission.
Mental health support in Sierra Leone is sparse, and qualitative research into the feasibility of implementing psychological interventions is equally underdeveloped. Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust were commissioned to develop a psychological intervention that UK clinicians could train national staff with minimal psychological experience to deliver to their peers. Following the completion of the stepped care, group-based cognitive–behavioural therapy intervention, qualitative interviews were conducted with the national team to identify key barriers and enablers to implementation of and engagement with this intervention. This article describes the key themes that came out of those interviews, and discusses the implications of these findings for future clinical teams.
Green manure crops must produce high biomass to supply biological N, increase organic matter and control weeds. The objectives of our study were to assess above-ground biomass productivity and weed suppression of clover (Trifolium spp.) green manures in an organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.) rotation in eastern Nebraska in three cycles (2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14). Treatments were green manure species [red clover (T. pratense L.) and white clover (T. repens L.)] undersown into winter wheat in March and green manure mowing regime (one late summer mowing or no mowing). We measured wheat productivity and grain protein at wheat harvest, and clover and weed above-ground biomass as dry matter (DM) at wheat harvest, 35 days after wheat harvest, in October and in April before clover termination. Winter wheat grain yields and grain protein were not affected by undersown clovers. DM was higher for red than for white clover at most sampling times. Red clover produced between 0.4 and 5.5 Mg ha−1 in the fall and 0.4–5.2 Mg ha−1 in the spring. White clover produced between 0.1 and 2.5 Mg ha−1 in the fall and 0.2–3.1 Mg ha−1 in the spring. Weed DM was lower under red clover than under white clover at most sampling times. In the spring, weed DM ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 Mg ha−1 under red clover and from 0.0 to 3.1 Mg ha−1 under white clover. Mowing did not consistently affect clover or weed DM. For organic growers in eastern Nebraska, red clover undersown into winter wheat can be a productive green manure with good weed suppression potential.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome has the greatest mortality rate among all CHDs and without palliation is uniformly fatal. Despite noble efforts, the aetiology of this syndrome is unknown and a cure remains elusive. The genetic and anatomic heterogeneity of hypoplastic left heart syndrome supports a rethinking of old hypotheses and warrants further investigation into the histological and vascular variations recognised with this syndrome. In an effort to elucidate the pathogenesis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, this review will focus on its unique myocardial and coronary pathology as well as evaluate the association of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with the endocardial fibroelastosis reaction.
In the years after 1500, the whole human family came into contact for the first time in thousands of years. For millennia Amerindians, Eurasians, and Polynesians had developed separately from one another with no knowledge of the existence of other members of the human race. Then in a few decades around 1500 long-lost peoples rediscovered one another. Amerindians and Europeans who had existed independently for at least 14,000 years suddenly came into contact. This same encounter occurred at many points throughout the world.
Within decades Europeans, Americans, and Asians were involved in a gigantic exchange that forever affected their menus and their agricultural life. Mineral and agricultural products crossed both the Atlantic and the Pacific in massive quantities, transforming production methods and daily consumption. From the Americas, Europeans imported turkeys, cranberries, potatoes, tomatoes, and tobacco. Asians obtained maize, peanuts, chili peppers, and most important, silver and gold in exchange for porcelain, silk, and tea. From Europe, Amerindians learned about horses, apples, barley, coffee, and wheat. Not all exchanges were productive. Crab grass comes from Europe as well as measles, malaria, cholera and bubonic plague, while smallpox devastated previously unexposed populations of the New World and Asia. From America came syphilis and hepatitis.
Lu Xun (1881–1936), China’s most famous modern writer, was born in the small market town of Shaoxing, near Shanghai. In 1901 he went to Japan, intending to become a doctor. In his medical school class, he saw a slide of apathetic Chinese bystanders watching the execution of a Chinese man by Japanese soldiers during the Russo-Japanese war of 1905. Shocked by their passivity, he concluded that China’s most deadly disease afflicted the spirit, not the body. He returned to China, resolving to become a writer to rouse his people from their deadly slumber. In “Call to Arms,” his first short story collection, he described with great sympathy and insight the foibles of ordinary Chinese folk following time-honored customs, nearly oblivious of the worldwide crisis that surrounded them. In “Diary of a Madman,” whose title is borrowed from the Russian writer Nikolai Gogol, the writer suddenly realizes that the basic principle of China’s classic civilization is “eat people.” Ah Q, Lu Xun’s most famous character, blithely walks to his own execution without ever knowing why he joined the cause of revolutionary nationalism. Lu Xun and his colleagues particularly stressed the need to free women from the straitjacket of traditional morality so that they could participate actively in making the new nation. Lu Xun organized the League of Left Wing Writers to mobilize Chinese writers in the service of revolutionary nationalism. Lu Xun’s mood constantly oscillated between high hopes and black despair. He died in 1936, hoping for China’s national unification based on radical social revolution, defying his own repressive government and the imminent threat of Japanese invasion.
Events of the year 1989 astonished the whole world. The usually sober 200-year-old political yearbook Annual Register began its 1989 edition with these breathless words:
If 1988 saw peace breaking out in various parts of the world, 1989 was even more remarkable as the year in which the Iron Curtain was lifted in Europe, with a rapidity which left most pundits gasping. Not only was the infamous Berlin Wall thrown open to divided German people; also, one by one, the East European communist regimes which had sustained the post-1945 continental divide succumbed to the irresistible forces of awakened democracy. That this historic transformation occurred in the bicentenary year of the French Revolution has a symbolism which appealed to many.
Early in 1989, the Soviet Union withdrew its last official armed forces from Afghanistan, where it had been battling American-backed military forces for nine years. In other events of that vibrant, violent year, Chinese troops suppressed pro-democracy uprisings in Beijing and many other cities, a South African president who pledged to end white racial domination took office, his government ended years of South African opposition to the independence of neighboring Namibia, and Iran’s religious leader pronounced a death sentence in absentia against author Salman Rushdie for his book Satanic Verses.
We conclude with a discussion of two critical issues: global terrorism and global warming. Both of them threaten to harm huge numbers of people, and both have roots far back in the human past. The greatest recent terrorist threat, that of al-Qaeda, derives directly from the imperial domination of the Middle East in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but al-Qaeda's supporters find their inspiration in the founding of Islam in the seventh century. Yet only the globalization of the late twentieth century made al-Qaeda's actions possible.
Global warming is a more subtle, but equally dangerous trend which, if nothing is done to avert it, will bring catastrophe to hundreds of millions of vulnerable people. It is a direct result of global industrialization since the nineteenth century. Scientists have carefully documented the warming of the planet over the past century, but the nations of the world have so far only taken very small steps to address this vital threat to human existence.
On September 11, 2001, members of the terrorist group al-Qaeda hijacked four transcontinental airliners taking off from Boston’s Logan airport. They crashed two of them into the two World Trade Center towers in New York City (see Figure 1). The explosion of the gasoline in the airplanes incinerated the twin towers and their occupants. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon. Passengers on the fourth plane, probably intended for the White House, brought it down in a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people died in these attacks. The boldness of the al-Qaeda attacks stunned and horrified the world. Never before had so many civilians been killed by a deliberate attack on American soil. President George W. Bush vowed to make a War on Terror the theme of his administration.
Nur Jahan (1577–1645) was born Mihr al-Nisa. Her extended family was from Tehran, in Iran, and they emigrated to Mughal India. When she turned 17, she was married to a Mughal military man of Iranian heritage. He became involved in political intrigue and backed the wrong candidate for the throne, and was executed. He left her a daughter, Ladli.
A widow, Nur Jahan came to the court in 1607 to attend on one of the great women of Emperor Jahangir’s harem. The imperial harem comprised some 5,000 women, most of whom were neither wives nor slave-girls of the emperor, but rather servants and artisans attending on the ladies. It was a complex small city, wherein brilliant, accomplished women played a special sort of politics, and could use it as a base to gain power even in the male-dominated world outside. In 1611 Emperor Jahangir held a large celebration of the Persian New Year, Now-Ruz, which falls on the first day of spring, and there he first saw Nur Jahan. She was reputed to be gorgeous, and he soon decided to marry her. It was he who gave her the name Nur Jahan (“light of the world”). Nur Jahan proved an energetic queen and hostess, taking charge of palace affairs. Jahangir was not a great emperor, and struggled with addiction to alcohol and drugs that often left him weak and shaking. He may have made a match with an older widow because he was looking for a mother figure who would take care of him. If so, Nur Jahan rose to the challenge.
In 1712, the Manchu official Tulisen left Beijing for the shores of the lower Volga River, in Russia, to visit a Mongolian khan. It was a distance of over 3,000 miles, and it took him nearly three years to get there and back. The emperor of China had sent him to explore Russian territory and look for an alliance against other Mongolian rivals. He was not invited to see the tsar (the ruler of all Russia), but he wrote a detailed account of the topography, ethnography, and history of all the regions he had crossed.
Seven years later, John Bell, a Scotsman in the service of the Russian tsar, set out from St. Petersburg for Beijing, covering much the same route as Tulisen in the opposite direction. He, too, reported accurately on the region’s geography, politics, and history, gathering scientific knowledge and military intelligence at the same time. Others followed them, like Ivan Unkovski, a Russian officer, who visited the Mongolian khan in Zungharia in 1722, and the French Jesuit Gerbillon, who accompanied the Chinese emperor on his military campaigns in the middle of the century. At the end of the century, the Englishman George Lord Macartney arrived by sea in Beijing in 1793 to negotiate the opening of formal trade relations between Britain and China.
Having struggled to acquire the fundamentals of reading, writing, and arithmetic, Thomas Paine (1737–1809), a collector of excise tax and a Methodist preacher in England, migrated to Britain’s American colonies. In 1774 he arrived in Philadelphia seeking to make his living as an editor and freelance author but already with a radical political agenda. Early on, Paine denounced the slave trade and elaborated a specific plan for its abolition. His popular pamphlet, Common Sense, defended the American cause before public opinion in both Britain and the colonies. It was the first salvo in the career of a man who became the world’s most radical polemicist. During the Valley Forge encampment, a bleak winter for the Revolution, Paine’s popular Crisis rallied Americans, announcing “These are the times that try men’s souls.”
Once the American Revolution had succeeded, Paine returned to England and took up the defense of the French Revolution. In response to the English legislator Edmund Burke’s celebrated polemic against the Revolution, Paine wrote The Rights of Man, one of the most widely read books of all time. Paine’s pamphlets promoted a new republican writing style, a popular political language, accessible to the artisan (skilled manual worker) yet capable of expressing moral outrage and high seriousness. Mocking Burke’s awe of tradition and popular reverence toward the British monarchy, Paine jibed: “A French bastard landing with an armed banditti and establishing himself King of England against the consent of the natives is, in plain terms, a very paltry rascally original. The plain truth is that the antiquity of English monarchy will not bear looking into.” Reading these lines, many ordinary men and women in England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales never looked at monarchy in quite the same way again.