To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Beginning in the early 1800s, New York has followed a comprehensive model of law-reporting with official law reports. This article by Charles Dewey Cole, Jr. looks at the influence of James Kent in establishing comprehensive law-reporting in New York, reviews the 1938 legislation that created the law reporting bureau and charged the state reporter with reporting almost all appellate court and selective trial court decisions, describes the state reporter's current publication practices and considers both the advantages of and the challenges presented by comprehensive official law-reporting. The article is based on a June 2019 presentation given at the annual conference of the British and Irish Association of Law Librarians in Bournemouth.
In response to concerns about acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant weeds in wheat production systems, we explored the efficacy of managing Bromus spp., downy and Japanese bromes, in a winter wheat system using alternative herbicide treatments applied in either fall or spring. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada over three growing seasons (2012–2014) to compare the efficacy of pyroxasulfone (a soil-applied very-long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor; WSSA Group 15) and flumioxazin (a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor; WSSA Group 14) against industry-standard ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy and Japanese brome control. Winter wheat injury from herbicide application was minor, with the exception of flucarbazone application at Scott. Bromus spp. control was greatest with pyroxsulam and all herbicide treatments containing pyroxasulfone. Downy and Japanese bromes were controlled least by thiencarbazone and flumioxazin, respectively, whereas Bromus spp. had intermediate responses to the other herbicides tested. Herbicides applied in fall resulted in reduced winter wheat yield relative to the spring applications. Overall, pyroxasulfone or pyroxsulam provided the most efficacious Bromus spp. control compared with the other herbicides and consistently maintained optimal winter wheat yields. Therefore, pyroxasulfone could facilitate management of Bromus spp. resistant to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat in the southern growing regions of western Canada. Improved weed control and delayed herbicide resistance may be achieved when pyroxasulfone is applied in combination with flumioxazin.
To evaluate whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a molecular typing tool for MRSA outbreak investigation.
Investigation of MRSA colonization/infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over 3 years (2014–2017).
Single-center level IV NICU.
NICU infants and healthcare workers (HCWs).
Infants were screened for MRSA using a swab of the anterior nares, axilla, and groin, initially by targeted (ring) screening, and later by universal weekly screening. Clinical cultures were collected as indicated. HCWs were screened once using swabs of the anterior nares. MRSA isolates were typed using WGS with core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Colonized and infected infants and HCWs were decolonized. Control strategies included reinforcement of hand hygiene, use of contact precautions, cohorting, enhanced environmental cleaning, and remodeling of the NICU.
We identified 64 MRSA-positive infants: 53 (83%) by screening and 11 (17%) by clinical cultures. Of 85 screened HCWs, 5 (6%) were MRSA positive. WGS of MRSA isolates identified 2 large clusters (WGS groups 1 and 2), 1 small cluster (WGS group 3), and 8 unrelated isolates. PFGE failed to distinguish WGS group 2 and 3 isolates. WGS groups 1 and 2 were codistributed over time. HCW MRSA isolates were primarily in WGS group 1. New infant MRSA cases declined after implementation of the control interventions.
We identified 2 contemporaneous MRSA outbreaks alongside sporadic cases in a NICU. WGS was used to determine strain relatedness at a higher resolution than PFGE and was useful in guiding efforts to control MRSA transmission.
Mental health support in Sierra Leone is sparse, and qualitative research into the feasibility of implementing psychological interventions is equally underdeveloped. Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust were commissioned to develop a psychological intervention that UK clinicians could train national staff with minimal psychological experience to deliver to their peers. Following the completion of the stepped care, group-based cognitive–behavioural therapy intervention, qualitative interviews were conducted with the national team to identify key barriers and enablers to implementation of and engagement with this intervention. This article describes the key themes that came out of those interviews, and discusses the implications of these findings for future clinical teams.
Green manure crops must produce high biomass to supply biological N, increase organic matter and control weeds. The objectives of our study were to assess above-ground biomass productivity and weed suppression of clover (Trifolium spp.) green manures in an organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.) rotation in eastern Nebraska in three cycles (2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14). Treatments were green manure species [red clover (T. pratense L.) and white clover (T. repens L.)] undersown into winter wheat in March and green manure mowing regime (one late summer mowing or no mowing). We measured wheat productivity and grain protein at wheat harvest, and clover and weed above-ground biomass as dry matter (DM) at wheat harvest, 35 days after wheat harvest, in October and in April before clover termination. Winter wheat grain yields and grain protein were not affected by undersown clovers. DM was higher for red than for white clover at most sampling times. Red clover produced between 0.4 and 5.5 Mg ha−1 in the fall and 0.4–5.2 Mg ha−1 in the spring. White clover produced between 0.1 and 2.5 Mg ha−1 in the fall and 0.2–3.1 Mg ha−1 in the spring. Weed DM was lower under red clover than under white clover at most sampling times. In the spring, weed DM ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 Mg ha−1 under red clover and from 0.0 to 3.1 Mg ha−1 under white clover. Mowing did not consistently affect clover or weed DM. For organic growers in eastern Nebraska, red clover undersown into winter wheat can be a productive green manure with good weed suppression potential.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome has the greatest mortality rate among all CHDs and without palliation is uniformly fatal. Despite noble efforts, the aetiology of this syndrome is unknown and a cure remains elusive. The genetic and anatomic heterogeneity of hypoplastic left heart syndrome supports a rethinking of old hypotheses and warrants further investigation into the histological and vascular variations recognised with this syndrome. In an effort to elucidate the pathogenesis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, this review will focus on its unique myocardial and coronary pathology as well as evaluate the association of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with the endocardial fibroelastosis reaction.
The main theme of this part is the collapse and partial restoration of the liberal, capitalist, and imperial orders that allowed Europeans to dominate most of the world. For Europeans, the nineteenth century was a time of unprecedented prosperity and power. Their mastery of the new industrial technologies had given them direct control of over half of the world’s peoples and huge influence over the rest. The great global linkages created by the European empires drew in commodities and labor from all over the world to create the products that went out to consumers everywhere. The USA, too, enjoyed its Gilded Age of wealth and empire, and Japan was rising quickly to join the elite club of great powers. It seemed that this machinery of expanding production and power could continue indefinitely. Many predicted, in the words of the historian Arnold Toynbee, the coming of an age of universal peace, wealth, and justice, an “earthly paradise.”
It was not to be. The Great War which broke out in 1914 destroyed the international imperial order, devastating all the European societies far beyond anyone’s expectations. Worse was to come. The brief, precarious stability of the 1920s fell apart in the 1930s under the impact of a savage world depression and the rise of a new, vicious mass movement: fascism. The world plunged into a new global war even more destructive than the first.
The first textbook to present world history via social history, drawing on social science methods and research. This interdisciplinary, comprehensive, and comparative textbook is authored by distinguished scholars and experienced teachers, and offers expert scholarship on global history that is ideal for undergraduate students. Volume 2 takes us from the early modern period to speculation about the world in 2050, visiting diverse civilizations, nation-states, ecologies, and people along the journey through time and place. The book pays particular attention to the ways in which ordinary people lived through the great changes of their times, and how everyday experience connects to great political events and the commercial exchanges of an interconnected world. With 75 maps, 65 illustrations, timelines, boxes, and primary source extracts, the book enables students to use historical material and social science methodologies to analyze the events of the past, present, and future.
The lawyer Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) spent twenty-five years in jail for organizing against the South African apartheid regime, but in 1994 he was elected president of South Africa. The young Mandela was an activist against the racist policies of the white regime; only later in life did he endorse non-violent political action. In his inauguration speech, he called for the “healing of wounds” and an end to the “pernicious ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression.” His Korean counterpart, Kim Dae-jung (1925–2009), also spent time in jail under military rule, but as prime minister pursued policies of democratization and reconciliation with his colonial rulers, the Japanese. Both won the Nobel Peace Prize.
Other anti-imperial leaders took different paths. Mao Zedong (1893–1976) and Kim Il-sung (1912–94) strongly endorsed violent struggle, isolating their countries from the world. Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) and his Viet Minh nationalists successfully fought off both the French and the Americans during a thirtyyear struggle. The bloody contest between Palestinians and Israelis continues today, despite intensive efforts at mediation. The struggle to rid the world of imperial domination has led to many unpredicted outcomes, and it is not yet over.
We conclude with a discussion of two critical issues: global terrorism and global warming. Both of them threaten to harm huge numbers of people, and both have roots far back in the human past. The greatest recent terrorist threat, that of al-Qaeda, derives directly from the imperial domination of the Middle East in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but al-Qaeda's supporters find their inspiration in the founding of Islam in the seventh century. Yet only the globalization of the late twentieth century made al-Qaeda's actions possible.
Global warming is a more subtle, but equally dangerous trend which, if nothing is done to avert it, will bring catastrophe to hundreds of millions of vulnerable people. It is a direct result of global industrialization since the nineteenth century. Scientists have carefully documented the warming of the planet over the past century, but the nations of the world have so far only taken very small steps to address this vital threat to human existence.
On September 11, 2001, members of the terrorist group al-Qaeda hijacked four transcontinental airliners taking off from Boston’s Logan airport. They crashed two of them into the two World Trade Center towers in New York City (see Figure 1). The explosion of the gasoline in the airplanes incinerated the twin towers and their occupants. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon. Passengers on the fourth plane, probably intended for the White House, brought it down in a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people died in these attacks. The boldness of the al-Qaeda attacks stunned and horrified the world. Never before had so many civilians been killed by a deliberate attack on American soil. President George W. Bush vowed to make a War on Terror the theme of his administration.
Between 1850 and 1914 both commerce and coercion expanded on a more global scale than ever before in human history. The technologies of the Second Industrial Revolution and the advance of the consolidated state powered this expansion. The Second Industrial Revolution was a North Atlantic revolution. The new centrality of Canada and the USA in the industrial order and the beginnings of industrial development in Japan were already laying the ground for a further shift toward the Pacific. Its technologies made possible the imperialist conquests characteristic of the era. At the same time, the model of the consolidated state that had emerged in the Age of Revolution spread throughout Europe and North America and then around the world. Existing states increasingly sought to unify and homogenize their national territories, while national minorities resisting such assimilation advocated the establishment of their own unified, homogeneous independent states. One important response to the expansion of industry and centralized state power was global popular protest. Worldwide protest evolved new forms and these innovative tactics showed similarities from Hankou to Chicago; in one guise or another, social spread throughout most of the world.
Between 1850 and 1914, in Western and Central Europe, North America, and Japan, a Second Industrial Revolution occurred whose impact on the daily life of men and women around the world was greater than that of the First Industrial Revolution. This revolution produced the large factory, the great corporation, and the factory worker, transforming steel production, machine construction, chemicals, and rubber. The Second Industrial Revolution depended heavily on fossil fuels, on coal and oil, and the geography of production and distribution were heavily affected by access to these resources.
World War II left Eurasia in ruins, and two huge continental superpowers, the USA and the USSR, dominating the world. Of the two, the USA had by far the bigger economy and superior military force. The wartime alliance of the two powers did not last long: Within two years, they had begun a bitter global conflict, the Cold War. Because both sides had nuclear weapons, this war threatened to exterminate humanity itself. Fortunately, the conflict quickly stabilized in Europe, dividing it into two spheres of influence, and both powers stepped back from nuclear confrontation over Cuba. But in the rest of the world, local upheavals threatened to draw in the superpowers, making each civil war and rebellion in the Third World a test of the superpowers’ “credibility.”
The two most destructive wars took place in Korea and Vietnam. In neither one did either superpower gain total victory. Korea remains a divided nation, and in Vietnam revolutionary nationalists successfully expelled French colonialists, their Vietnamese collaborators, and their American supporters. The Soviet Union, emboldened by American defeat, moved into Afghanistan, but faced its own Vietnam there. By 1980, the superpowers no longer seemed to dominate the world.
Despite the superpower confrontation, the postwar world economy grew at an unprecedented rate for thirty years.
In 1682, the boyars of Russia chose the vigorous 10-year-old boy Peter as their new tsar, with his mother Natalia as regent. Unfortunately, Peter's accession was immediately challenged by relatives of his older half-sister Sophia. A mob of dissatisfied musketeers broke into the Kremlin square, slaughtered the top boyars, murdered Peter's brother, but swore loyalty to the new tsar. Peter and his mother, still fearing for their lives, fled the capital. For the rest of his life, Peter hated Moscow, the Kremlin, and all it represented: intrigue, violence, superstition, and anarchy. He resolved to build an orderly state that insisted on honest service from all its subjects. As a youngster growing up in the suburbs of Moscow, he played with foreigners who taught him how to train his own soldiers. He learned to build his own ships. When he grew up, Peter forced the Russian people into the world of Western European states. But Russia also expanded to the borders of China, where it met the equally dynamic Kangxi emperor. The Kangxi emperor also came to the throne as a young man, challenged his elder relatives, and made China both strong and actively engaged with Western European powers. By 1700, these two vigorous rulers had made their states the dominant powers of Eurasia.