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The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) for the orientation of these bodies. These formats are used by the SPICE system, developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The working group's final report is currently undergoing final preparations for publication. A long version of this report will be available at the IAU Commission 4: Ephemerides (or its successor) web site. This long version will contain a full description of that portion of the SPK and PCK formats required to duplicate these file types for this application.
A school-based nutrition information programme was initiated in 1992 in two towns in northern France (Fleurbaix and Laventie, FL) and was followed by a number of community-based interventions. We took the opportunity to measure the outcomes in terms of childhood obesity and overweight over the next 12 years.
Repeated, cross-sectional, school-based survey. For the school years beginning in 1992, 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2004, the height and weight of all 5- to 12-year-old children attending school were measured in FL. In 2004, the same assessments were made in two comparison towns with similar socio-economic characteristics but no intervention.
Fleurbaix and Laventie (intervention towns), Bois-Grenier and Violaines (comparison towns), northern France.
In 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively 515, 592 and 633 children were measured in FL (participation rate of 95–98 % of all eligible individuals); in the comparison towns, 349 children were measured in the 2004 school year (98 % of the towns’ school population).
After an initial increase, trends in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight started to reverse. Compared with 2002, the age-adjusted OR for overweight in FL was significantly lower in 2003 and 2004 (but for girls only). In the 2004 school year, the overweight prevalence was significantly lower in FL (8·8 %) than in the comparison towns (17·8 %, P < 0·0001).
These data suggest that, over a long period of time, interventions targeting a variety of population groups can have synergistic effects on overweight prevalence. This gives hope that it is possible to reverse trends towards increasing overweight by actions at the community level.
Biotin was grafted onto boron doped nanocrystaline diamond electrode through a four-step-chemical process. First step of grafting was electro-chemical reduction of p-4,nitro diazonium salts. The grafting was characterized using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence analysis. XPS analysis and curve fitting procedure lead to the identification of different bond states of carbon present in the grafted film and highlights difference of coverage rate between samples. AFM highlights the non-mononuclear aspect of the diazonium electrografting. Fluorescence measurements with avidin recognition prove the efficient of the grafting.
This chapter provides a developmental perspective on how the US mental health community has responded to periodic requests to define and quantify the need for mental health services in both public and private insurance sectors. It focuses on a model of epidemiological data that will improve the ability to plan for mental health services. The chapter talks about a research enterprise that is attuned to health policy service delivery innovations, service and economic research parameters, and treatment technologies involving both efficacy and effectiveness outcome measurement. Although most managed care systems have been in the private sector, public sector contracts for Medicaid and Medicare mental health services are growing. To be most effective, the role of epidemiology must be inclusive enough to inform us about the unmet need for treatment in the community. Thus, epidemiology may serve as an integrating discipline for basic science, clinical medicine, public health and health policy.
This study investigated phonetic activation in reading a nonalphabetic script – Chinese. Since the Chinese ideographic script can be read with more than one dialectal pronunciation, a reader who has learned to read in two dialects will have two pronunciations for the same word stored in his memory. Thus, interference effects will occur. Sixteen subjects who read in Cantonese and Mandarin and 16 subjects who read in Mandarin but not in Cantonese were tested in a similarity judgment task based on pairs of Chinese words that were pronounced the same or differently in one or both of the dialects. That automatic phonetic activation would occur even for an ideographic script such as Chinese was supported by the results.
The hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoaziri) embryos are of special interest because the species is the only representative of its family and sub-order, and is well known to possess important anatomical features comparable with the bird-like reptiles. Eleven hoazin embryos collected by Dr G. S. Carter in British Guiana have been examined. These range in development from a stage having nine mesoderm segments—equivalent to a fowl embryo of approximately forty hours' incubation—to a single specimen ready to hatch. The earlier embryos resemble the corresponding stages in the development of other birds, but the oldest embryo shows features characteristic of the type and has been dissected. Points in the anatomy of this specimen and their bearing on previous observations on hoatzin embryos are discussed.
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