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Incentive Spirometry is commonly used for respiratory recovery. The literature on incentive spirometry and its impact on patients with rib fracture is unclear and there are no recommendations regarding its use in the Emergency Department (ED), particularly in rib fracture patients, which are known for increasing the risk of pulmonary complication. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the use of incentive spirometry and to measure its impacts on delayed complications in patients discharged from the ED with confirmed rib fracture.
This is a planned sub-study of a prospective observational cohort recruited in 4 Canadians ED between November 2006 and May 2012. Non-admitted patients over 16 y.o. with at least one confirmed rib fracture on radiographs were included. Prescription of incentive spirometry was left to attending physician. Main outcomes were development of pneumonia, atelectasis, and hemothorax within 14 days. Propensity score matching analyses were performed.
439 patients were included and 182 (41.5%) patients received incentive spirometry. There were 99 cases of hemothorax (22.6%), 103 cases of atelectasis (23.5%) and 4 cases of pneumonia (0.9%). The use of incentive spirometry was not protector for hemothorax [RR = 1.03 (0.66–1.64)] and atelectasis or pneumonia [RR = 1.07 (0.68–1.72)].
Our results suggest that unsupervised incentive spirometry use does not have a protective effect against delayed pulmonary complications after rib fracture. Further research should be conducted to assess the usefulness of incentive spirometry in specific injured population in the ED.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of emergency department (ED) point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) for rib fracture diagnosis in patients with minor thoracic injury (mTI). Secondary objectives were to 1) evaluate patients’ pain during the PoCUS procedure, 2) identify the limitations of the use of PoCUS technique, and 3) compare the diagnosis obtained with PoCUS to radiography results.
Adult patients who presented with clinical suspicion of rib fractures after mTI were included. All patients underwent PoCUS performed by emergency physicians (EPs) prior to a rib view X-ray. A visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100 was used to ascertain feasibility, patients’ pain and clinicians’ degree of certitude. Feasibility was defined as a score of more than 50 on the VAS. We documented the radiologists’ interpretation of rib view X-ray. Radiologists were blinded to the PoCUS results.
Ninety-six patients were included. A majority (65%) of EPs concluded that the PoCUS technique to diagnose rib fracture was feasible (VAS score > 50). Median score for feasibility was 63. Median score was 31 (Interquartile range [IQR] 5–57) for patients’ pain related to the PoCUS. The main limiting factor of the PoCUS technique was pain during patient examination (15%).
PoCUS examination appears to be a feasible technique for a rib fracture diagnosis in the ED.
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of delayed complications, specifically hemothorax, and functional outcome in patients with isolated sternal fracture discharged from the emergency department (ED) compared to patients with other minor thoracic trauma.
This prospective cohort study was conducted in four university-affiliated Canadian EDs. Patients ages 16 and older discharged from the ED with an isolated minor thoracic injury were included and categorized as isolated sternal fracture, rib fracture, or no fracture. A standardized clinical and radiological follow-up was performed at 7 and 14 days as well as a phone follow-up at 30 and 90 days post-injury. Functional outcome was determined using the Medical Outcome Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12).
A total of 969 patients were included, of whom 32 (3.3%) had an isolated sternal fracture, 304 (31.3%) had rib fracture, and 633 (65.3%) had no fracture. Within 14 days, 112 patients presented with a delayed hemothorax: 12.5% of sternal fracture patients, 23% of rib fracture(s) patients, and 6% of minor thoracic injury patients without fracture (p<0.05). At 90 days, 57.1% of patients with sternal fracture had moderate to severe disability compared to 25.4% and 21.2% for both of the other groups, respectively (p<0.001).
In this prospective study, we found that 12.5% (n=4, p<0.05) of patients with sternal fracture developed a delayed hemothorax, but the clinical significance of this remains questionable. The proportion of patients with sternal fracture who had moderate to severe disability was significantly higher than that of patients with other minor thoracic trauma.
The purpose of this study was to assess adverse events associated with diagnostic urethral catheterization (UC) in young children and to determine their impact on the patient and their family.
This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the emergency department of a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. All 3- to 24-month-old children with fever who had a diagnostic UC were eligible. Parents who consented to participate were contacted by phone within 7 to 10 days after the UC to answer a standardized questionnaire inquiring about complications. The primary outcome was the occurrence of an unfavourable event in the seven days following UC, defined as painful urination, genital pain, urinary retention, hematuria or secondary urinary tract infection. Secondary outcomes included the need for further medical care and the need for parents to miss school or work.
Of the 199 patients who completed the study, 41 (21%) reported a complication: painful urination in 19 (10%) children, genital pain in 16 (8%), urinary retention in 11 (6%), gross hematuria in 9 (5%), and secondary urinary tract infection in 1 (0.5%). Three (1%) parents reported the need for further medical care and three (1%) missed work. Two independent variables (male sex and age 12-23 months) were associated with a higher risk of adverse events.
Urethral catheterization is associated with adverse events in 21% of young children in the week following the procedure. Accordingly, this procedure should be used judiciously in children, considering its potential to cause unfavourable events.
The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and time to onset of delayed hemothorax and pneumothorax in adults who experienced a minor blunt thoracic trauma.
A prospective cohort of 450 consecutive patients was recruited. Eligible patients had to be over 16 years of age, consulted within 72 hours for a trauma, and available for outpatient follow-up at 2, 7, and 14 days posttrauma. The clinical outcome investigated was the presence of delayed pneumothorax or hemothorax on the follow-up chest x-ray.
Delayed hemothorax occurred in 11.8% (95% CI 8.8–14.8), and delayed pneumothorax occurred in 0.9% (95% CI 0.2–2.3) of participants. During the 14-day follow-up period, 87.0% of these delayed complications developed in the first week. In the multivariate analysis, the only statistically significant risk factor for delayed complications was the location of fractures on the x-ray of the hemithorax. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.52 (95% CI 0.62–3.73) for the lower ribs (tenth to twelfth rib), 3.11 (95% CI 1.60–6.08) for the midline ribs (sixth to ninth rib), and 5.05 (95% CI 1.80–14.19) for the upper ribs (third to fifth rib) versus patients with no fractures.
The presence of at least one rib fracture between the third and ninth rib on the x-ray of the hemithorax is a significant risk factor for delayed hemothorax and pneumothorax.