To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The joint effects of stimulus quality and semantic context in visual word recognition were examined with event-related potential (ERP) recordings. In one-character Chinese word recognition, we manipulated stimulus quality at two degradation levels (highly vs. slightly degraded) and semantic context at two priming levels (semantically related vs. unrelated). In a prime–target–probe trial flow, ERPs were recorded to the target character which was presented in either high or slight degradation and which was preceded by either a semantically related or unrelated prime character. The target character was then followed by a probe character which was either identical to or different from the target character. Subjects were instructed to make target–probe matching judgments. The ERP results demonstrated a degradation by priming interaction, with larger N400 semantic priming effects for slightly degraded targets. Moreover, the degradation effects were observed on the P200, N250, and N400. These findings provided evidence for the cascaded model of visual word recognition such that the visual processing cascaded into the semantic stage and thus interacted on the N400 amplitude. The results were compared to an earlier study with a null ERP degradation by priming interaction. The ramifications of these results for models of visual word recognition are discussed.
China accounts for 17% of the global disease burden attributable to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. As a country undergoing profound societal change, China faces growing challenges to reduce the disease burden caused by psychiatric disorders. In this review, we aim to present an overview of progress in neuroscience research and clinical services for psychiatric disorders in China during the past three decades, analysing contributing factors and potential challenges to the field development. We first review studies in the epidemiological, genetic and neuroimaging fields as examples to illustrate a growing contribution of studies from China to the neuroscience research. Next, we introduce large-scale, open-access imaging genetic cohorts and recently initiated brain banks in China as platforms to study healthy brain functions and brain disorders. Then, we show progress in clinical services, including an integration of hospital and community-based healthcare systems and early intervention schemes. We finally discuss opportunities and existing challenges: achievements in research and clinical services are indispensable to the growing funding investment and continued engagement in international collaborations. The unique aspect of traditional Chinese medicine may provide insights to develop a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. Yet obstacles still remain to promote research quality and to provide ubiquitous clinical services to vulnerable populations. Taken together, we expect to see a sustained advancement in psychiatric research and healthcare system in China. These achievements will contribute to the global efforts to realize good physical, mental and social well-being for all individuals.
A profound characteristic of field cancerization is alterations in chromatin packing. This study aimed to quantify these alterations using electron microscopy image analysis of buccal mucosa cells of laryngeal, esophageal, and lung cancer patients. Analysis was done on normal-appearing mucosa, believed to be within the cancerization field, and not tumor itself. Large-scale electron microscopy (nanotomy) images were acquired of cancer patients and controls. Within the nuclei, the chromatin packing of euchromatin and heterochromatin was characterized. Furthermore, the chromatin organization was quantified through chromatin packing density scaling. A significant difference was found between the cancer and control groups in the chromatin packing density scaling parameter for length scales below the optical diffraction limit (200 nm) in both the euchromatin (p = 0.002) and the heterochromatin (p = 0.006). The chromatin packing scaling analysis also indicated that the chromatin organization of cancer patients deviated significantly from the control group. They might allow for novel strategies for cancer risk stratification and diagnosis with high sensitivity. This could aid clinicians in personalizing screening strategies for high-risk patients and follow-up strategies for treated cancer patients.
Neuroimaging characteristics have demonstrated disrupted functional organization in schizophrenia (SZ), involving large-scale networks within grey matter (GM). However, previous studies have ignored the role of white matter (WM) in supporting brain function.
Using resting-state functional MRI and graph theoretical approaches, we investigated global topological disruptions of large-scale WM and GM networks in 93 SZ patients and 122 controls. Six global properties [clustering coefficient (Cp), shortest path length (Lp), local efficiency (Eloc), small-worldness (σ), hierarchy (β) and synchronization (S) and three nodal metrics [nodal degree (Knodal), nodal efficiency (Enodal) and nodal betweenness (Bnodal)] were utilized to quantify the topological organization in both WM and GM networks.
At the network level, both WM and GM networks exhibited reductions in Eloc, Cp and S in SZ. The SZ group showed reduced σ and β only for the WM network. Furthermore, the Cp, Eloc and S of the WM network were negatively correlated with negative symptoms in SZ. At the nodal level, the SZ showed nodal disturbances in the corpus callosum, optic radiation, posterior corona radiata and tempo-occipital WM tracts. For GM, the SZ manifested increased nodal centralities in frontoparietal regions and decreased nodal centralities in temporal regions.
These findings provide the first evidence for abnormal global topological properties in SZ from the perspective of a substantial whole brain, including GM and WM. Nodal centralities enhance GM areas, along with a reduction in adjacent WM, suggest that WM functional alterations may be compensated for adjacent GM impairments in SZ.
To investigate homocysteine (Hcy) and folate levels, prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) and folate deficiency, which are affected by lifestyles in urban, agricultural and stock-raising populations.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Urban, agricultural and stock-raising regions in Emin, China.
Totally 1926 subjects – 885 (45·9 %) from urban, 861 (44·7 %) from agricultural and 180 (9·4 %) from stock-raising regions – were obtained using multistage stratified random sampling. Inclusion criteria encompassed inhabitants aged ≥15 years who resided at the current address for ≥6 months and agreed to participate in the study. Surveys on health behaviour questionnaires and physical examinations were conducted and blood samples collected.
The folate level of subjects from the stock-raising region was the lowest, followed by those from the agricultural region, and the highest in those from the urban region (3·48 v. 6·50 v. 7·12 ng/ml, P < 0·001), whereas mean Hcy showed no significant difference across regions. The OR for HHcy in stock-raising regions was 1·90 (95 % CI 1·11, 3·27) compared with the urban region after adjusting for all possible covariates. The OR for folate deficiency in stock-raising and agriculture regions was 11·51 (95 % CI 7·09, 18·67) and 1·91 (95 % CI 1·30, 2·82), respectively, compared with the urban region after adjusting for all possible covariates.
HHcy and folate deficiency are highly prevalent in stock-raisers, which is of important reference for HHcy control in Xinjiang, with a possibility of extension to others with approximate lifestyles.
Dietary salt intake may vary depending on different lifestyles. We aimed to estimate the different salt intakes and evaluate the knowledge and self-awareness about salt among people speaking the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects in the Chaoshan region of southern China.
The study followed a cluster sampling of residents in Chaoshan region. General characteristics, lifestyles, health status as well as knowledge and self-awareness related to salt intake were investigated using a questionnaire. Anthropometric variables as well as Na and K excretion in a 24-h urine collection were measured.
Chaoshan region of China.
Four hundred fifteen adults who spoke only one of these three dialects.
The salt intake of adults who spoke the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects was 7·19 (interquartile range (IQR) 5·29–10·17), 9·03 (IQR 6·62–11·54) and 10·12 (IQR 7·61–12·82) g/d, respectively, with significant differences between Teochew and Teochew–Hakka speakers and between Teochew and Hakka speakers (both P < 0·05). The Na:K ratio for adults who spoke the three dialects was 3·00 (IQR 2·00–4·11), 3·50 (IQR 2·64–4·82) and 4·52 (IQR 3·35–5·97), respectively, and differed significantly among the groups (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed increased Na:K ratio associated with hypertension (β = 0·71, P = 0·043) in Hakka speakers. Knowledge and self-awareness about salt intake were poor in this population.
Salt intake was closely related to lifestyles and was higher than the upper limit (5 g/d) recommended by the WHO in adults of Chaoshan, especially those speaking the Hakka dialect.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Numerous systematic reviews of prospective studies on the association of stroke risk with the consumption of various food groups have been published. A review of the evidence across the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to provide an overview of the range and validity of the reported associations of food groups with stroke risk.
The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published up to September 2015 to identify systematic reviews of prospective studies.
A total of eighteen studies published from 2008 to 2015 were eligible for analysis. Overall, thirteen specific foods were studied for an association with stroke outcome, including nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables, refined grains, whole grains, dairy products, eggs, chocolate, red and/or processed meat, fish, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages and coffee. Whereas a high consumption of nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, fish and tea, and moderate consumption of coffee and chocolate demonstrated a protective effect, a high consumption of red and/or processed meat was associated with increased stroke risk. Refined grain, sugar-sweetened beverage, legume, egg and whole grain intake showed no effect on stroke outcome.
The current overview provided a high level of evidence to support the beneficial effect of specific foods on stroke outcome. Clinicians and policy makers could inform clinical practice and policy based on this overview.
This study investigates people's implicit stereotype of the social group of the rich in terms of competence and warmth. We further examine the stereotype's relationship with temporal selves. Implicit Association Tests were used as measures of implicit social perception in a social comparison context. We also rated the degree of psychological connectedness between current and possible future selves across time. Our results demonstrate that the rich are implicitly perceived as having high levels of competence and low levels of warmth compared to the average person, and that a close psychological connectedness mitigates the negative perception of the rich. The implications and limitations of these findings are also discussed.
Alkaline rock and carbonatite complexes, including the Prairie Lake complex (NW Ontario), are widely distributed in the Canadian region of the Midcontinent Rift in North America. It has been suggested that these complexes were emplaced during the main stage of rifting magmatism and are related to a mantle plume. The Prairie Lake complex is composed of carbonatite, ijolite and potassic nepheline syenite. Two samples of baddeleyite from the carbonatite yield U–Pb ages of 1157.2±2.3 and 1158.2±3.8 Ma, identical to the age of 1163.6±3.6 Ma obtained for baddeleyite from the ijolite. Apatite from the carbonatite yields the same U–Pb age of ~1160 Ma using TIMS, SIMS and laser ablation techniques. These ages indicate that the various rocks within the complex were synchronously emplaced at about 1160 Ma. The carbonatite, ijolite and syenite have identical Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions with a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ~0.70254, and positive εNd(t)1160 and εHf(t)1160 values of ~+3.5 and ~+4.6, respectively, indicating that the silicate and carbonatitic rocks are co-genetic and related by simple fractional crystallization from a magma derived from a weakly depleted mantle. These age determinations extend the period of magmatism in the Midcontinent Rift in the Lake Superior area to 1160 Ma, but do not indicate whether the magmatism is associated with passive continental rifting or the initial stages of plume-induced rifting.
Since the electromagnetic energy gained by the laser wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) is transferred from the kinetic energy loss of a relativistic electron beam, the stability of electron motion is one of the key factors that affect FEL performance. In this paper the stability of electron motion is compared for different focusing regimes. It is demonstrated that the natural focusing regime of a three-dimensional wiggler is easily broken by the self-field of the electron beam. The magnetic focusing regime of an axial guide magnetic field is based on the superposition of a strong Larmor rotation on the transverse quiver motion of the electrons, while the electric focusing regime of an ion-channel guiding field generates an electric force to counteract the divergent effect of the beam self-field. In comparison with the magnetic focusing regime of an external magnetic system, the electric focusing regime of an ion-channel guiding field may yield smaller instantaneous Larmor radius and slighter Larmor-centre deviation from the axis and provide better motion stability.
This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0–0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0–0.7% in ITS1 and 0–1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0–65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3–64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods – Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony – revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes.
The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.
The monomer dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) was cross-linked by clay Laponite XLG and Laponite XLS, respectively, in situ free-radical polymerization to prepare nanocomposite gels (named as G-NC gels and S-NC gels). From the analysis of yield, transparency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray, and scanning electron microscopy, it was proved that the clay Laponite XLS is an appropriate cross-linker for preparing PDMAEMA NC gels with better homogeneous and higher yield due to the uniform dispersion of clay in gels. The resulting S-NC gels show obvious temperature and pH double sensitiveness, and the lowest critical solution temperatures of gels with a low clay content are close to the temperature of the human body, which makes this gel a potential candidate for application in drug release. Comparing with the gels cross-linked by a chemical cross-link agent, the S-NC gels exhibit a considerable improvement in the mechanical properties, swelling ratio, and deswelling rate. The properties of S-NC gels could be adjusted by controlling the content of clay.
Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is common in patients with schizophrenia; however, the pathogenesis is unclear. Different classes of antipsychotic agents may affect BMD. This study systemically examined the effects of clozapine vs. other antipsychotics, and several hormonal and metabolic factors that may contribute to BMD in female patients with schizophrenia, who are more vulnerable than males. Forty-eight women with schizophrenia, treated with long-term antipsychotics of the prototype prolactin-sparing (PS) antipsychotic agent clozapine vs. prolactin-raising (PR) antipsychotics were enrolled. They were matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Various factors, including blood levels of prolactin and sex hormones, psychopathological symptoms, global assessment of functioning, physical activity, and menopausal status, were determined to explore their contribution to low BMD (LBMD), defined as a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) T score <−1. Overall, women receiving clozapine have better bone density than women receiving PR antipsychotics. Compared to PR antipsychotics, PS clozapine therapy is a protective factor (odds ratio 28.2, 95% confidence interval 2.37–336.10, p=0.008) for LBMD. Predictors for higher bone density in the clozapine group included higher clozapine dose (p<0.001), younger age (p<0.001), and higher thyroid-stimulating hormone level (p<0.001); in the PR group, higher body mass index (p=0.003) and lower alkaline phosphatase level (p=0.007) were associated with LBMD. This study suggests that clozapine treatment is beneficial for BMD compared to PR antipsychotic treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia, and clozapine's bone-density protecting effect is dose-related.
Recent cladistic analyses have all suggested a diapsid origin of ichthyosaurs. However, an intermediate evolutionary stage of the lower temporal region of ichthyosaurian skull between basal diapsids and derived ichthyosaurs has been absent from the fossil record. Here we describe the cranial skeleton of a new mixosaurid ichthyosaur specimen with a well-preserved lower temporal region from the Anisian Guanling Formation of eastern Yunnan. It is characterized by the most primitive lower temporal region within known ichthyosaurs. The primitive characters of the lower temporal region include both external and internal separation between the jugal and the quadratojugal, an anterior process of the quadratojugal, an apparent posteroventral process of the jugal, and a large lower temporal opening surrounded by the jugal, the postorbital, the squamosal, and the quadratojugal. The lower temporal region of this specimen provides the most direct evidence to the diapsid origin of ichthyosaurs. It also suggests that the disappearance of the lower temporal fenestra is caused initially by the reduction of the lower temporal arcade rather than the enlargement of the surrounding bones.
Numerical investigation of the compressible flow past a wavy cylinder was carried out using large-eddy simulation for a free-stream Mach number M∞ = 0.75 and a Reynolds number based on the mean diameter Re = 2 × 105. The flow past a corresponding circular cylinder was also calculated for comparison and validation against experimental data. Various fundamental mechanisms dictating the intricate flow phenomena, including drag reduction and fluctuating force suppression, shock and shocklet elimination, and three-dimensional separation and separated shear-layer instability, have been studied systematically. Because of the passive control of the flow over a wavy cylinder, the mean drag coefficient of the wavy cylinder is less than that of the circular cylinder with a drag reduction up to 26%, and the fluctuating force coefficients are significantly suppressed to be nearly zero. The vortical structures near the base region of the wavy cylinder are much less vigorous than those of the circular cylinder. The three-dimensional shear-layer shed from the wavy cylinder is more stable than that from the circular cylinder. The vortex roll up of the shear layer from the wavy cylinder is delayed to a further downstream location, leading to a higher-base-pressure distribution. The spanwise pressure gradient and the baroclinic effect play an important role in generating an oblique vortical perturbation at the separated shear layer, which may moderate the increase of the fluctuations at the shear layer and reduce the growth rate of the shear layer. The analysis of the convective Mach number indicates that the instability processes in the shear-layer evolution are derived from oblique modes and bi-dimensional instability modes and their competition. The two-layer structures of the shear layer are captured using the instantaneous Lamb vector divergence, and the underlying dynamical processes associated with the drag reduction are clarified. Moreover, some phenomena relevant to the compressible effect, such as shock waves, shocklets and shock/turbulence interaction, are analysed. It is found that the shocks and shocklets which exist in the circular cylinder flow are eliminated for the wavy cylinder flow and the wavy surface provides an effective way of shock control. As the shock/turbulence interaction is avoided, a significant drop of the turbulent fluctuations around the wavy cylinder occurs. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms relevant to the passive control of the compressible flow past a wavy surface.
Numerical investigation of the compressible flow past an 18% thick circular-arc aerofoil was carried out using detached-eddy simulation for a free-stream Mach number M∞ = 0.76 and a Reynolds number Re = 1.1 × 107. Results have been validated carefully against experimental data. Various fundamental mechanisms dictating the intricate flow phenomena, including moving shock wave behaviours, turbulent boundary layer characteristics, kinematics of coherent structures and dynamical processes in flow evolution, have been studied systematically. A feedback model is developed to predict the self-sustained shock wave motions repeated alternately along the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil, which is a key issue associated with the complex flow phenomena. Based on the moving shock wave characteristics, three typical flow regimes are classified as attached boundary layer, moving shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction and intermittent boundary layer separation. The turbulent statistical quantities have been analysed in detail, and different behaviours are found in the three flow regimes. Some quantities, e.g. pressure-dilatation correlation and dilatational dissipation, have exhibited that the compressibility effect is enhanced because of the shock wave/boundary layer interaction. Further, the kinematics of coherent vortical structures and the dynamical processes in flow evolution are analysed. The speed of downstream-propagating pressure waves in the separated boundary layer is consistent with the convection speed of the coherent vortical structures. The multi-layer structures of the separated shear layer and the moving shock wave are reasonably captured using the instantaneous Lamb vector divergence and curl, and the underlying dynamical processes are clarified. In addition, the proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of the fluctuating pressure field illustrates that the dominated modes are associated with the moving shock waves and the separated shear layers in the trailing-edge region. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms relevant to this complex flow.
Recent evidence indicates that enhancing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmission with the treatment of NMDA/glycine site agonists, such as d-serine, or a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) antagonist, N-methylglycine (sarcosine), can improve symptoms of schizophrenia. To compare these two novel approaches, 60 patients with chronic schizophrenia were enrolled into a 6-wk double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of add-on treatments at the reported effective dosages (2 g/d). Clinical assessments were conducted every other week. Treatment group×treatment duration interaction analysis by multiple linear regression showed that sarcosine was superior to placebo at all four outcome measures of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total (p=0.005), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) (p=0.021), Quality of Life (QOL) (p=0.025), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) (p=0.042). However, d-serine did not differ significantly from placebo in any measure. Sarcosine treatment was better than d-serine in effect sizes for all outcome measures. Sarcosine also surpassed placebo in most of the measures of five PANSS factors and five SANS subscales. All treatments were well tolerated. These findings suggest that the GlyT-1 inhibitor is more efficacious than the NMDA/glycine site agonist in treatment for schizophrenia, including life quality and global function, at the dosages tested.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.