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The effects of flow velocity on the fitness-related behaviours of Mesocentrotus nudus remain largely unknown, greatly hampering the efficiency of stock enhancement. To explore the appropriate velocities for stock enhancement, we investigated dislodgement and immobilization velocities up to 90 cm s−1. The experimental results showed that M. nudus (test diameter of ~30 mm) were dislodged at 73.50 ± 7.7 cm s−1 and that M. nudus movement occurred only when the flow velocity was less than 33.40 ± 2.7 cm s−1. Three flow velocities less than 33.40 ± 2.7 cm s−1 (2, 10 and 20 cm s−1) were subsequently used to study the effects of flow velocities on covering behaviour and the righting response time of M. nudus. The downstream movement velocity of M. nudus was significantly larger than that upstream at 2 cm s−1 (P = 0.016) and 10 cm s−1 (P = 0.008), but not at 20 cm s−1 (P = 0.222). The righting response time of M. nudus was significantly longer at 20 cm s−1 than that at 2 cm s−1 (P = 0.015). The present study indicates that a flow velocity less than 20 cm s−1, preferably 2–10 cm s−1, is probably appropriate for the stock enhancement of M. nudus. Notably, the current study is a laboratory investigation without considering the hydrographic complexity in the field. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the long-term effects of water flow on feeding and growth of M. nudus both in the laboratory and the field.
In this research, the thermal transport behavior of the branched carbon nanotube (CNT) with T-junction was investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Both symmetric and asymmetric temperature-controlled simulations were imposed to evaluate how the heat flowed inside the branched CNT with three branches of equal length and same chirality. The branch length and strain effects on the heat flow were examined. In addition, the simulated heat flow was compared with the prediction made by conventional thermal circuit calculation based on diffusive phonon transport. The heat was observed to flow straight rather than sideway inside the branched CNT with T-junction under the asymmetric temperature setup; this finding contradicts the conventional thermal circuit calculation. There are two possible explanations for this phenomenon. One is ballistic phonon transport and the other is phonons have different interactions or scattering with the defective atomic configurations at the T-junction. Moreover, the tensile strain could tune the heat flow, a finding that might be useful in thermal management applications.
A suite of Jurassic–Cretaceous migmatites was newly identified in the Liaodong Peninsula of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Anatexis is commonly associated with crustal thickening. However, the newly identified migmatites were formed during strong lithospheric thinning accompanied by voluminous magmatism and intense deformation. Field investigations show that the migmatites are spatially associated with low-angle detachment faults. Numerous leucosomes occur either as isolated lenses or thin layers (dykes), parallel to or cross-cutting the foliation. Peritectic minerals such as titanite and sillimanite are distributed mainly along the boundaries of reactant minerals or are accumulated along the foliation. Most zircons show distinct core–rim structures, and the rims have low Th/U ratios (0.01–0.24). Zircon U–Pb dating results indicate that the protoliths of the migmatites were either the Late Triassic (224–221 Ma) diorites or metasedimentary rocks deposited sometime after c. 1857 Ma. The zircon overgrowth rims record crystallization ages of 173–161 Ma and 125 Ma, which represent the formation time of leucosomes. These ages are consistent with those reported magmatic events in the Liaodong Peninsula and surrounding areas. The leucosomes indicate a strong anatectic event during the Jurassic–Cretaceous period. Partial melting occurred through the breakdown of muscovite and biotite with the presence of water-rich fluid under a thermal anomaly regime. The possible mechanism that caused the 173–161 Ma and 125 Ma anatectic events was intimately related to the regional crustal extension during the lithospheric thinning of the NCC. Meanwhile, the newly generated melts further weakened the rigidity of the crust and enhanced the extension.
Human fatigue is a major risk factor in transportation that contributes, directly or indirectly, to a large number of traffic accidents. Though many studies have investigated fatigue-inducing factors in transportation to manage human fatigue more efficiently, there are limited studies related to vessel traffic service (VTS). To fill this gap, this work aims to determine the key causal factors and symptoms of human fatigue with a focus on VTS operations. Achieving this aim is hindered by the problems of no standard definition of task-related fatigue and limited data sources. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel definition of task-related human fatigue, a task-driven approach for identifying causal factors and a causal network-based approach for selecting key causal factors. Twelve key causal factors of human fatigue in VTS were identified and analysed. In addition, it was found that VTS operators suffered from multidimensional fatigue, especially physical fatigue. The results provide a foundation and future directions for designing interventions to manage human fatigue.
Sample geometry effects on mechanical strengths of gold micro-cantilevers are evaluated by a micro-bending test. Six micro-cantilevers with the same length of 50 μm are prepared, and the width and the thickness are varied to examine individual effects on the yield stress. The yield stress increases from 428 to 519 MPa when the thickness decreases from 11.1 to 6.0 μm. No obvious dependency is observed when varying the width. The results reveal that the thickness and the width each has a different influence on the yield stresses of micro-cantilevers evaluated by the bending test, which is the sample geometry effect.
The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
The oxidation behavior of the selective laser melting (SLM)–fabricated Inconel 718 was investigated through isothermal oxidation testing at 650 °C for 500 h and compared with that of the as-cast and as-forged specimens at the same testing conditions. The effect of microstructure and surface roughness on the oxidation behavior of the SLM-fabricated, as-cast, and as-forged Inconel 718 specimens was examined. The result shows that Inconel 718 fabricated by SLM with the unique layer structure exhibited a better resistance to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C compared with as-cast and as-forged 718 with coarse dendritic structure and uniform equiaxed grain microstructure, respectively. The influence of the surface roughness on the long-time oxidation resistance of SLM specimens is not pronounced compared with that of as-cast and as-forged specimens. The tiny dendrites instead of grain boundaries are a major influencing factor for the oxidation process of SLM specimens. The surface roughness has more evident influence on the oxidation resistance of as-forged specimens than that of the as-cast ones subjected to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C.
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16–27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7–952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.
Dietary salt intake may vary depending on different lifestyles. We aimed to estimate the different salt intakes and evaluate the knowledge and self-awareness about salt among people speaking the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects in the Chaoshan region of southern China.
The study followed a cluster sampling of residents in Chaoshan region. General characteristics, lifestyles, health status as well as knowledge and self-awareness related to salt intake were investigated using a questionnaire. Anthropometric variables as well as Na and K excretion in a 24-h urine collection were measured.
Chaoshan region of China.
Four hundred fifteen adults who spoke only one of these three dialects.
The salt intake of adults who spoke the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects was 7·19 (interquartile range (IQR) 5·29–10·17), 9·03 (IQR 6·62–11·54) and 10·12 (IQR 7·61–12·82) g/d, respectively, with significant differences between Teochew and Teochew–Hakka speakers and between Teochew and Hakka speakers (both P < 0·05). The Na:K ratio for adults who spoke the three dialects was 3·00 (IQR 2·00–4·11), 3·50 (IQR 2·64–4·82) and 4·52 (IQR 3·35–5·97), respectively, and differed significantly among the groups (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed increased Na:K ratio associated with hypertension (β = 0·71, P = 0·043) in Hakka speakers. Knowledge and self-awareness about salt intake were poor in this population.
Salt intake was closely related to lifestyles and was higher than the upper limit (5 g/d) recommended by the WHO in adults of Chaoshan, especially those speaking the Hakka dialect.
Sleep quality in psychosis has been reported to have abnormalities in terms of sleep efficiency, initiation, maintenance and total sleep time (Bromundt et al., 2011; Wulff et al., 2012; Wilson & Argyropoulos, 2012). Some have even argued that such sleep abnormalities may have caused a few cognitive symptoms in psychosis (e.g., Wamsley et al., 2011). In recent years, physical exercise has been reported to have significant effects in reducing cognitive symptoms in patients with psychosis. However, there is no up-to-date study that has investigated the correlation between physical exercise, sleep quality and the cognitive function of patients with psychosis.
The aim of this study is to promote a 12-week physical exercise intervention to the psychotic population, and investigate whether the intervention can improve the sleeping quality as well as procedural memory performance. A randomised control trial has been carried out for this study. Patients with psychosis were recruited and randomly assigned to either a 12-week physical exercise intervention or a 12-week Carrom control intervention. Sleep quality (i.e., Insomnia Sleep Index; Bastien et al., 2001, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Buysee et al., 1988), cognitive function and clinical scale will be assessed before and after the 12-week intervention.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and often lead to severe, longstanding functional disability. Effective non-pharmacological interventions are needed due to the unsuccessful results of pharmacological interventions.
To determine whether yoga is effective for cognitive impairments, and the neural mechanism underlying these effects.
It was a randomized controlled study of 12-week of yoga and aerobic exercise (walking and cycling) intervention vs wait-list control for female early psychotic patients. Memory was measured with Hong Kong List Learning Test and Digit Span test, and attention was measured with Letter Cancellation test. Cognitive data analysis was based on the Intention-to-Treat method using a mixed-model analysis. Seed based functional connectivity was applied using posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) as seed with AFNI. Cortical thickness analyses were performed using FreeSurfer. Results from yoga and control groups were presented.
A total of 140 women were recruited and randomized into three groups. 95 completed the study, and 115 were included for cognitive data analysis. For imaging data, 42 participants were used for cortical thickness analyses; and 60 were included for neural connectivity analyses. Yoga group demonstrated significant improvements in working memory, verbal acquisition and attention (P=.01). Cortical thickness increased in the postcentral gyrus (P<.01); connectivity between PCC and bilateral inferior parietal gyrus increased after yoga intervention (P<.005).
Yoga has been found to be effective for memory and attention in early psychotic patients. The increases of thickness and neural connectivity indicate the possible neural mechanisms underlying the improvements of cognition.
This article is a summary of perspectives on training curricula from child and adolescent psychiatry trainees globally. We aimed to identify the relative strengths, weaknesses and gaps in learning needs from a trainee's perspective. The 20 early-career child psychiatrists who contributed are from 16 countries and represent all the five continents. We could identify some global challenges as well as local/regional challenges that need to be addressed to develop competent child psychiatrists.
The authors propose an alternative route to circumvent the limitation of neutron flux using the recent deep learning super-resolution technique. The feasibility of accelerating data collection has been demonstrated by using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data collected from the EQ-SANS instrument at Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Data collection time can be reduced by increasing the size of binning of the detector pixels at the sacrifice of resolution. High-resolution scattering data is then reconstructed by using a deep learning-based super-resolution method. This will allow users to make critical decisions at a much earlier stage of data collection, which can accelerate the overall experimental workflow.
Take-away milk tea (TAMT) is popular among young generation, and the numbers of retails of TAMT have increased dramatically in recent years in many cities in China. Non-dairy cream is one of the major ingredients of TAMT. Concerns have been raised whether trans-fat originated from non-dairy cream may have an influence on cardio-metabolic traits. We evaluated the associations between daily intake of TAMT with plasma lipid profiles among young Chinese adults, who are the major customers of TAMT retailers.
Materials and Methods
The study population was from the phase 1 sample (104 adults) of the Carbohydrate Alternatives and Metabolic Phenotypes study. Those lacking blood samples or with a body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2 were excluded, therefore, a total of 88 subjects with an average age of 22.8 years were included in the analysis. A food frequency questionnaire with 27 items was used to collect the dietary intake. Generalized linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between TAMT intake and cholesterol levels.
The estimated mean (± SE) of TAMT intake was 14.4 ± 3.4 ml/day, with apparent differences between males (8.8 ± 2.7 ml/day) and females (17.7 ± 5.1 ml/day). The mean of total cholesterol of the participants was 4.1 ± 0.1 mmol/L. After adjusted for age, sex, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol drink habit, and physical activity level, daily TAMT intake was positively associated with total cholesterol (beta ± SE = 0.0053 ± 0.0020, P = 0.011). The association was not substantially changed with further adjustment of body fat percentage (beta ± SE = 0.0053 ± 0.0020, P = 0.010). Similar associations were observed for high/low density lipoprotein cholesterols. When analysis was performed by sex, the association was only observed among females (beta ± SE = 0.0049 ± 0.0022, P = 0.031), but not in males (beta ± SE = 0.0022 ± 0.0060, P = 0.703).
In young adult Chinese, we observed an association between TAMT intake with plasma cholesterol level, independent of body adiposity.
The influence of combined corrosion and vibration to the anti-loosening performance of a precision locknut used in a machine tool is investigated. Firstly, the locknut was submerged in 5% NaCl solution according to ASTM B895 standard for corrosion testing. The locknuts, after submerged in 1-hr, 2-hr and 4-hr periods, respectively, were then installed on the rotating spindle in a vertical dynamic impact tester for performing anti-loosening test. The initial installed pretension was 9800 N and the spindle was rotating in a constant speed of 1000 rpm. Turmogrease Li 802 EP lubricant was used on the contact surface between spindle thread and locknut. The set screws on the locknut were tightened sequentially and evenly in three-stage of torque: 1.96 N-m, 3.92 N-m and 5.88 N-m. Its real-time pretension variation with the periodic transverse impact and its final loosening torque were measured. Accordingly, the axial force ratio and anti-loosening torque ratio were calculated and discussed. It was found that corrosion treatment had similar influence on both the axial force ratio and the anti-loosening torque ratio. More corrosion on the locknut with longer submersion in NaCl solution deteriorated its anti-loosening characteristics. The result could serve as the reference for evaluating the fastening performance of precision locknut and guide the design and manufacturing for the application improvement.
In this paper, we focus on the configuration design of a reconfigurable robot that merges the functions of wheels, tracks, and legs together. A deformable rim is utilized to make the robot wheel reconfigurable to change its locomotion mode. Three rules of configuration design to achieve reconfiguration between different modes are proposed: (1) in wheel mode, the track wheel set should be hidden inside the wheel rim; (2) in track/leg mode, the folded wheel rim should be hidden inside the caterpillar loop; (3) the circumference of the wheel rim in wheel mode should be equal to the length of the track ring in track mode. According to these rules, the configuration of the deformable rim, track wheel set, and telescopic spoke are analyzed and designed. A prototype of the reconfigurable wheel is fabricated by three-dimensional printing, and its functions of locomotion in different modes, the switch between different modes, and its load-bearing ability are tested, verifying the effectiveness of the configuration design. Furthermore, a prototype of the reconfigurable robot is manufactured by computerized numerical control (CNC) machining to verify the structural design of the reconfigurable wheel. Compared to traditional hybrid robots with separate wheels, tracks, and legs, this reconfigurable design lends the multimodal robot both excellent terrain adaptability and a compact structure; thus, it can be widely used as a universal mobile platform in search and rescue missions and explosive object disposal missions.