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To describe a group of infants with complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) who had candidemia postoperatively and to perform a case–control study of risk factors.
Descriptive and case–control study.
Tertiary-care medical centers.
Infants with CCHD who underwent cardiac surgery and developed candidemia. Controls were matched for congenital heart disease lesions, age, and postoperative hospital stay.
Of 95 infants younger than 6 months with CCHD who underwent cardiac surgery between January 1999 and April 2001, 6 (6.3%) developed candidemia with 5 different species. The candidemia was prolonged (range, 12 to 32 days; median, 17 days). The interval between cardiac surgery and onset of candidemia was 12 to 57 days (median, 24 days). All had a central venous catheter inserted 8 to 50 days prior to the onset of candidemia. The mortality rate was 83%, compared with 13% for the group without candidemia. A univariate analysis of the potential risk factors revealed that duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), duration of antibiotics, intraoperative cardiopulmonary bypass time, and documentation of an intravascular thrombus were associated with candidemia. In multivariate analysis, long duration of TPN and documentation of a thrombus were associated with candidemia.
Candidemia following cardiac surgery for infants with CCHD was persistent and associated with high mortality. The variety of species indicates that this was not a common-source outbreak. Risk factors associated with candidemia were duration of TPN and documentation of an intravascular thrombus.
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