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This study investigated the effect of the flavonoid-based compound isorhamnetin (ISO) on maturation and developmental competence in oxidative stress-exposed porcine oocytes in vitro. Treatment with 2 μM ISO (2 ISO) increases the developmental rate of oxidative stress-exposed porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM). The glutathione level and mRNA expression of antioxidant-related genes (NFE2L2 and SOD2) were increased in the 2 ISO-treated group, whereas the reactive oxygen species level was decreased. Treatment with 2 ISO increased mRNA expression of a cumulus cell expansion-related gene (SHAS2) and improved chromosomal alignment. mRNA expression of maternal genes (CCNB1, MOS, BMP15 and GDF9) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity were increased in the 2 ISO-treated group. The total cell number per blastocyst and percentage of apoptotic cells were increased and decreased in the 2 ISO-treated group, respectively. Treatment with 2 ISO increased mRNA expression of development-related genes (SOX2, NANOG, and POU5F1) and anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2L1 and BIRC5) and decreased that of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP3 and FAS). These results demonstrate that 2 ISO improves the quality of porcine oocytes by protecting them against oxidative stress during IVM and enhances subsequent embryo development in vitro. Therefore, we propose that ISO is a useful supplement for IVM of porcine oocytes.
Goryeocrinus pentagrammos n. gen. n. sp. from the Jigunsan Formation of South Korea is described and is the first diplobathrid recorded from Middle Ordovician (middle Darriwilian) strata of East Gondwana. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that G. pentagrammos n. gen. n. sp. is a member of the paraphyletic Rhodocrinitidae of the Diplobathrida and most closely related to Paradiabolocrinus from the Late Ordovician (Sandbian) of Laurentia. Goryeocrinus pentagrammos n. gen. n. sp. is characterized by having a pentameral, flat bowl-shaped calyx, a conspicuous pentagrammatic ridge formed by bifurcated median ray ridge and pentagonal basal ridge, at least two interradials in the first row of regular interrays, an anitaxial ridge originating from the CD interray but close to the C ray radial, and lacking intrabrachials and interradials between secundibrachials. The occurrence of G. pentagrammos n. gen. n. sp. from South Korea (East Gondwana) drastically expands the Ordovician paleogeographic range of camerates, which otherwise have been recorded from Laurentia, West Gondwana, Avalonia, and Baltica.
In this paper, we propose a sea current relative navigation method using an interacting multiple model (IMM) filter with adaptive fading technique that can compensate an inaccurate sea current dynamics model. Due to the marine environment, the underwater vehicles largely depend on inertial navigation. Unfortunately, since its performance deteriorates with time, it is usually aided by another sensor. An electromagnetic-log (EM-log) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL), which are mainly used in marine navigation, provide relative velocity measurements to the sea currents, and hence require an accurate sea current dynamics model to fully utilise them. However, it is difficult to reflect the actual sea current changes with just a single fixed model, resulting in degraded overall navigation performance. Therefore, this paper proposes an IMM filter that can use multiple sea current dynamics models and has sub-filters designed with adaptive fading extended Kalman filter (AFEKF) to compensate for the mismodelling of sea current dynamics. The method is verified by simulation and shows a performance improvement comparable to the optimal filter.
Background: Although small- and medium-sized hospitals comprise most healthcare providers in South Korea, data on antibiotic usage is limited in these facilities. We evaluated the pattern of antibiotic usage and its appropriateness in hospitals with <400 beds in South Korea. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 10 hospitals (6 long-term care hospitals, 3 acute-care hospitals, and 1 orthopedic hospital), with <400 beds in South Korea. We analyzed patterns of antibiotic prescription and their appropriateness in the participating hospitals. Data on the monthly antibiotic prescriptions and patient days for hospitalized patients were collected using electronic databases from each hospital. To avoid the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, data were collected from January to December 2019. For the evaluation of the appropriateness of the prescription, 25 patients under antibiotic therapy were randomly selected at each hospital over 2 separate periods. Due to the heterogeneity of their characteristics, the orthopedics hospital was excluded from the analysis. The collected data were reviewed, and the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was evaluated by 5 specialists in infectious diseases (adult and pediatric). Data from 2 hospitals were assigned to each specialist. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was evaluated from 3 aspects: route of administration, dose, and class. If the 3 aspects were ‘optimal,’ the prescription was considered ‘optimal.’ If only the route was ‘optimal,’ and the dose and/or class was ‘suboptimal,’ but not ‘inappropriate,’ it was considered ‘suboptimal.’ If even 1 aspect was ‘inappropriate,’ it was classified as ‘inappropriate.’ Results: The most commonly prescribed antibiotics in long-term care hospitals was fluoroquinolone, followed by β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (antipseudomonal). In acute-care hospitals, these were third-generation cephalosporin, followed by first-generation cephalosporin and second-generation cephalosporin. The major antibiotics that were prescribed in the orthopedics hospital was first-generation cephalosporin. Only 2.3% of the antibiotics were administered inappropriately. In comparison, 15.3% of patients were prescribed an inappropriate dose. The proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions was 30.6% of the total antibiotic prescriptions. Conclusions: The antibiotic usage patterns vary between small- and medium-sized hospitals in South Korea. The proportion of inappropriate prescriptions exceeded 30% of the total antibiotic prescriptions.
Our previous studies have already revealed that β-cryptoxanthin (BCX), hesperetin (HES), and icariin (ICA) antioxidants are effective for in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. In this study, we investigated which of BCX, HES, or ICA was more effective for IVM of porcine oocytes. The antioxidant properties were assessed with aged porcine oocytes and embryos by comparing 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, and H2O2 scavenging activity assays. The chemical assay results demonstrated that BCX had a greater DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power than HES and ICA, compared with controls. However, the H2O2 scavenging activity of the antioxidants was similar when tested at the optimal concentrations of 1 μM BCX (BCX-1), 100 μM HES (HES-100), and 5 μM ICA (ICA-5). The biological assay results showed that BCX-1 treatment was more effective in inducing a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving glutathione levels, and increasing the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, BCX-1 inhibited apoptosis by increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic genes and decreasing pro-apoptotic genes in porcine parthenogenetic blastocysts. BCX-1 also significantly increased the blastocyst formation rate compared with the ageing control group, HES-100 and ICA-5. This study demonstrates that damage from ROS produced during oocyte ageing can be prevented by supplementing antioxidants into the IVM medium, and BCX may be a potential candidate to improve assisted reproductive technologies.
Ohiocrinus byeongseoni n. sp. from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Jigunsan Formation of South Korea in the Sino-Korean (North China) block is the oldest species of Ohiocrinus of the Cincinnaticrinidae and the first record outside Laurentia. O. byeongseoni is characterized by a loosely clockwise-coiled anal sac, isotomous branching throughout arms, long, slender xenomorphic column, and small lichenocrinid-type holdfast. The new species occurs in association with a deep-water siliciclastic environment, unlike the Laurentian species with a shallow-water carbonate environment. The monospecific crinoid assemblage is interpreted as parautochthonous, considering that the crinoids were reworked by relatively weak down-current probably caused by storm but preserved within the environment where they lived. The occurrence of O. byeongseoni presents a considerable spatiotemporal gap and ecologic disparity in evolution of Ohiocrinus and the Cincinnaticrinidae.
The U.S. labor market continues to grapple with a “skills gap” (Marshall & Craig, 2019): a disconnect between the skills employers need and the number of job-seekers with those skills. Compounded by historically low unemployment rates, this gap is leaving employers with unfilled jobs and narrow talent pipelines. Concurrently, there are lingering concerns regarding underrepresentation of women and minorities in certain sectors of the labor market—particularly occupations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This article examines how the traditional interest-only career guidance tools used in education significantly influence the gender-based skills gaps that persist in high-demand careers and introduces YouScience, a company that is helping ameliorate the skills gap by combining measures of aptitudes and interests in a new career discovery platform. We close by presenting action steps for students, parents, educators, and counselors, as well as positing possible effects of COVID-19 on career exploration and counseling.
In this study, the effect of acceleration matching according to sensor specifications in rapid transfer alignment is analysed. In general, the velocity and attitude information of the Master Inertial Navigation System (MINS) is used for transfer alignment. MINS angular velocity information is used to improve the alignment speed in shipboard transfer alignment. Acceleration matching, on the other hand, is generally considered an impractical option for transfer alignment. However, in the case of shipboard transfer alignment, acceleration matching is thought to be effective. In order to analyse the performance of acceleration matching, a performance index is defined and the efficiency of acceleration matching is analysed according to various sensor specifications and simulation environments. Based on the analysis of the estimated performance according to the simulation results, it is confirmed that acceleration matching in rapid transfer alignment is valid.
Sport participation is well known to promote health outcomes for children and adolescents. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence about the psychological and social outcomes of sport participation for older adults. This article provides the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social outcomes of sport participation for older adults. A systematic review of seven electronic databases was conducted and a total of 21 studies published that attended to psychological and/or social health benefits from sport participation of older adults (50 years old and over) were included. The outcomes of older adults’ sport participation included life satisfaction, depression, anxiety, stress, mood state, hedonistic values, socialisation, competition, and personal psychological outcomes such as personal empowerment, self-confidence, self-esteem and resistance to the negative view of ageing. Future studies are needed to conceptualise and operationalise the different levels of involvement of sport participation.
Land masking of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is generally accomplished by applying either archived shoreline databases or image segmentation. However, those methods cannot be solely applied to geographical areas complicated with many small islands and exposed rocks. Therefore, we have proposed a new procedure where Sobel edge extraction is applied to detect the edges of all objects from KOMPSAT-5 X-band SAR images, followed by a merging process with the edges from the land objects based on Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC) coastlines. Using the land mask data, geometrically corrected SAR images were masked before applying a ship detection algorithm. This land masking procedure was applied to several images covering different areas of the Korean Peninsula. The results show that land targets such as newly constructed and natural objects were also masked, and thus did not create false alarms during ship detection. Therefore, this method can be used to assist precise ship detection using SAR images in coastal waters.
Two challenges exist in laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). First, a drastic decline in mass-resolving power is caused, not only by laser-induced thermal effects on the APT tips of bulk oxide materials, but also the associated asymmetric evaporation behavior; second, the field evaporation mechanisms of bulk oxide tips under laser illumination are still unclear due to the complex relations between laser pulse and oxide materials. In this study, both phenomena were investigated by depositing Ni- and Co-capping layers onto the bulk LaAlO3 tips, and using stepwise APT analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the tip shapes. By employing the metallic capping, the heating at the surface of the oxide tips during APT analysis became more symmetrical, thereby enabling a high mass-resolving power in the mass spectrum. In addition, the stepwise microscopy technique visualized tip shape evolution during APT analysis, thereby accounting for evaporation sequences at the tip surface. The combination of “capping” and “stepwise APT with TEM,” is applicable to any nonconductors; it provides a direct observation of tip shape evolution, allows determination of the field evaporation strength of oxides, and facilitates understanding of the effects of ultrafast laser illumination on an oxide tip.
The fossil isopod crustacean genus Archaeoniscus has been known to occur in England, France and Germany during the Upper Jurassic, and in Mexico and Egypt during the Lower Cretaceous. The morphology of this genus is unique in having dorsoventrally compressed body, the cephalon set deeply into the first pereionite, pleon as wide as pereion, and a broad semicircular pleotelson. These features have resulted in placing the classification of the genus in the monotypic family Archaeoniscidae. However, due to the lack of detailed morphological data, suprafamilial classification of this genus has remained unclear, as well as its ecology and lifestyle. Here we report Archaeoniscus coreaensis n. sp. from the Jinju Formation, Gyeongsang Basin, Korea. The occurrence of Archaeoniscus in the East Asia implies that the genus may have had a worldwide distribution. The Gyeongsang Basin was a Cretaceous backarc basin, which consists of exclusively non-marine sedimentary sequences. The occurrence of this genus, therefore, indicates that Archaeoniscus successfully adapted to a freshwater ecosystem as well. Detailed anatomy including antennulae, antennae, pereiopods, and uropods was observed from well-preserved multiple specimens, which allows better understanding of the morphology of Archaeoniscus. The axial structure in the posterior part of the body, which was previously interpreted as a unique brood pouch characterizing the family, turned out to be a remnant of the hindgut. Females of all isopods and most of the members of the superorder Peracarida have a thoracic ventral brood pouch, modified from the thoracic coxal endites. Based on the morphology of the largely unmodified ambulatory pereiopods of A. coreaensis, the possibility of Archaeoniscus being ectoparasitic is discounted. Instead, the flattened body and the form of limbs of A. coreaensis would have been suitable for a benthic lifestyle.
Caregivers of cancer patients face intense demands throughout the course of the disease, survivorship, and bereavement. Caregiver burden, needs, satisfaction, quality of life, and other significant areas of caregiving are not monitored regularly in the clinic setting, resulting in a need to address the availability and clinical effectiveness of cancer caregiver distress tools. This review aimed to determine the availability of cancer caregiver instruments, the variation of instruments between different domains of distress, and that between adult and pediatric cancer patient populations.
A literature search was conducted using various databases from 1937 to 2013. Original articles on instruments were extracted separately if not included in the original literature search. The instruments were divided into different areas of caregiver distress and into adult versus pediatric populations. Psychometric data were also evaluated.
A total of 5,541 articles were reviewed, and 135 articles (2.4%) were accepted based on our inclusion criteria. Some 59 instruments were identified, which fell into the following categories: burden (n = 26, 44%); satisfaction with healthcare delivery (n = 5, 8.5%); needs (n = 14, 23.7%); quality of life (n = 9, 15.3%); and other issues (n = 5, 8.5%). The median number of items was 29 (4–125): 20/59 instruments (33.9%) had ≤20 items; 13 (22%) had ≤20 items and were psychometrically sound, with 12 of these 13 (92.3%) being self-report questionnaires. There were 44 instruments (74.6%) that measured caregiver distress for adult cancer patients and 15 (25.4%) for caregivers of pediatric patients.
Significance of results:
There is a significant number of cancer caregiver instruments that are self-reported, concise, and psychometrically sound, which makes them attractive for further research into their clinical use, outcomes, and effectiveness.