Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to determine kochia resistance to a spectrum of acetolactate synthase (E.C.4.13.18) (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. The chlorsulfuron-resistant biotype plants were resistant to six herbicides: triflusulfuron, thifensulfuron, halosulfuron, imazamethabenz, chlorsulfuron, and nicosulfuron. But, the resistant biotypes showed sensitivity similar to the susceptible biotypes to three herbicides: metsulfuron, imazethapyr, and imazaquin. The resistant biotypes were slightly less sensitive to primisulfuron, chlorimuron, and flumetsulam than the sensitive biotypes. The I50 values for 50% inhibition of the ALS enzyme indicated that the resistant biotype was 22, 18, and 16 times more resistant to primisulfuron, chlorsulfuron, and thifensulfuron than the susceptible biotype. In contrast, the I50 ratios (resistant/susceptible) were 3, 2, and 1 for flumetsulam, nicosulfuron, and imazethapyr, respectively. The altered ALS enzyme system of the resistant biotype showed a differential response for the ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Addition of a mixed function oxidase inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) at 2 kg ha−1, to primisulfuron and thifensulfuron increased visual injury and reduced plant height of the chlorsulfuron-sensitive kochia biotype plants. The addition of PBO to primisulfuron enhanced visual injury of the resistant biotype at low rates of primisulfuron.