Over the last few years, significant improvements in sources, columns, detectors, control software, and accessories have enabled a wealth of new focused ion beam applications. In addition, modeling has provided many insights into ion-sample interactions and the resultant effects on the sample. With the knowledge gained, the community has found new ion-beam induced chemistries and ion-beam sources, allowing extending nanostructure fabrication and material deposition to smaller dimensions and better control for direct write and patterning. Insignificant proximity effects in resist-based ion beam lithography, combined with the availability of sub-nm ion spot sizes, opens the way to sub-10 nm structures and dense patterns. Additionally, direct-write ion beam nanomachining can process multilevel structures with arbitrary depths in one single process step, with all the information included in a single standard design file, thus enabling fabrication applications not achievable with any other technique.