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To examine the association between protective lifestyle behaviours (PLB) and depression in middle-aged Irish adults.
Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study. PLB (non-smoker, moderate alcohol, physical activity, adequate fruit and vegetable intake) were assessed using a general health and lifestyle questionnaire and a validated FFQ. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score of 15–21 indicates mild/moderate depression and a score of 22 or more indicates a possibility of major depression. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between PLB and depression.
Livinghealth Clinic, Mitchelstown, North Cork, Republic of Ireland.
Men and women aged 50–69 years were selected at random from a list of patients registered at the clinic (n 2047, 67 % response rate).
Over 8 % of participants engaged in zero or one PLB, 24 % and 39 % had two and three PLB respectively, while 28 % had four PLB. Those who practised three/four PLB were significantly more likely to be female, have a higher level of education and were categorised as having no depressive symptoms. Engaging in zero or one PLB was significantly associated with an increased odds of depression compared with four PLB. Results remained significant after adjusting for several confounders, including age, gender, education and BMI (OR=2·2; 95 % CI 1·2, 4·0; P for trend=0·001).
While causal inference cannot be established in a cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that healthy behaviours may play a vital role in the promotion of positive mental health or, at a minimum, are associated with lower levels of depression.
This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being and quality of life in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the potential psychosocial impact of screening.
A total of 152 children (aged 3–18 years) attending a specialist paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinic, and their parents completed the Generic Core Scales and Cardiac Module of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 21 patients (14%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group A); 23 children (15%) harboured hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing sarcomeric mutations with normal echocardiograms (group G); and 108 children (71%) had a family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal investigations and attended for clinical cardiological screening (group S).
In group A, mean PedsQLTM total scores reported by children and parents were lower than those reported by unaffected children (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between unaffected and gene-positive patients. Mean Cardiac module PedsQLTM total scores by children and parents were lower in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared with unaffected patients [mean child-reported total score 86.4 in group S versus 72.3 in group A (p<0.001) and 80.2 in group G (p=0.25); mean parent-reported total score 91.6 in group S versus 71.4 in group A (p<0.001) and 87 in group G (p=0.4)]. There was no significant difference between group S and group G on any of the scales, or between the three groups of patients in the mean Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores.
Children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a significantly reduced quality of life. Importantly, Quality-of-Life scores among unaffected children attending for screening were not different compared with scores from a normative UK population.