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Whether genetic factors influence the associations of fatty acids with the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is largely unknown. To investigate possible gene–fatty acid interactions on SCA risk, we used a case-only approach and measured fatty acids in erythrocyte samples from 1869 SCA cases in a population-based repository with genetic data. We selected 191 SNP in ENCODE-identified regulatory regions of fifty-five candidate genes in fatty acid metabolic pathways. Using linear regression and additive genetic models, we investigated the association of the selected SNP with erythrocyte levels of fatty acids, including DHA, EPA and trans-fatty acids among the SCA cases. The assumption of no association in non-cases was supported by analysis of publicly available datasets containing over 8000 samples. None of the SNP–fatty acid associations tested among the cases reached statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. One SNP, rs4654990 near PLA2G2A, with an allele frequency of 0·33, was nominally associated with lower levels of DHA and EPA and higher levels of trans-fatty acids. The strongest association was with DHA levels (exponentiated coefficient for one unit (1 % of total fatty acids), 0·90, 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97; P = 0·003), indicating that for subjects with a coded allele, the OR of SCA associated with one unit higher DHA is about 90 % what it is for subjects with one fewer coded allele. These findings suggest that the associations of circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids with SCA risk may be more pronounced in carriers of the rs4654990 G allele.
In patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis who are hospitalized or reside in congregate settings, guidelines recommend airborne infection isolation until sputum smear results are negative. Studies have identified factors associated with delayed sputum smear and culture conversion in patients with tuberculosis. Because these studies did not use methods of survival analysis, estimates of time to sputum smear conversion that are based on initial patient characteristics are not available. The ability to predict time to sputum smear conversion could be useful for programmatic planning and patient counseling.
We performed a cohort study using survival analysis to identify factors associated with time to sputum smear and culture conversion. We defined the time to sputum smear conversion as the time elapsed from the start of treatment to the first date of sustained conversion.
Ninety-eight patients had sputum smear samples positive for acid-fast bacilli. Lower initial smear grade (on 1+ to 4+ scale) and absence of cavitation on chest radiograph were associated with earlier sputum smear conversion in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression analysis, initial smear grade (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.57) and drug resistance (hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.89) remained statistically significant; a model comprising only initial smear grade performed almost as well. Predictors of sputum culture conversion were similar.
Initial smear grade was the strongest predictor of time to sputum smear and culture conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and may be a useful predictor for programmatic planning and patient counseling.
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intraoral appliance, the Innsbruck Sensorimotor Activator and Regulator (ISMAR), in improving drooling and eating skills in a group of children with cerebral palsy, and to determine which factors might indicate good candidates for this type of treatment. Eighteen children (13 males, five females; mean age 7 years 10 months, range 4 to 13 years) were selected. Measures of drooling and feeding skills were taken at baseline, at the completion of a 6-month control phase, and at two more 6-monthly time points after the ISMAR was fitted. Children varied greatly in both the length of time taken to tolerate wearing the ISMAR and duration for which the appliance was worn. Only six children (four females, two males) completed the full study. Their motor disabilities were athetosis (n=3), spastic quadriplegia (n=2), and hypotonia (n=1); four of the six children used a wheelchair for locomotion. None had epilepsy and none had greater than mild cognitive impairment. For these children drooling severity scores and eating and drinking skills improved significantly over the treatment period in comparison with the control phase. We conclude that the ISMAR remains a valid option in improving drooling in children and merits further study.
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