The term “technology” has various meanings, including the windows and walls surrounding workplaces, advanced automation, computer systems, and information communication technology such as cell phones, e-mails, voice mail, personal data assistants (PDAs), pagers, BlackBerries, and the Internet. Technology is omnipresent in today's society and all aspects of our work and private lives require the use and influence of some type of technology. Over the past twenty years or so, the rate of development and implementation of new technologies in organizations and society in general has escalated, as has the rate of technological change itself. Mamaghani (2006) observed that prior to the 1990s the utilization of advanced technology was typically limited to manufacturing and production companies, with much lower rates of utilization in the nonproduction sector (such as offices). In recent times, however, there has been an explosion of technological change globally, particularly in computer-based and other media-based technologies. These are often referred to collectively as information and communication technology (ICT), whose increased sophistication and power has generated significant benefits for individuals, organizations, and society at large (Mamaghani, 2006).
Technologies have major implications for work environments and conditions, private life, and social relationships. Computerized environments and ICT provide workers with new opportunities to capture, store, analyze, and distribute information. They also increase workers' flexibility by creating mobile working practices and instant information transmission.