To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Algebraic varieties are shapes defined by polynomial equations. Smooth Fano threefolds are a fundamental subclass that can be thought of as higher-dimensional generalizations of ordinary spheres. They belong to 105 irreducible deformation families. This book determines whether the general element of each family admits a Kähler–Einstein metric (and for many families, for all elements), addressing a question going back to Calabi 70 years ago. The book's solution exploits the relation between these metrics and the algebraic notion of K-stability. Moreover, the book presents many different techniques to prove the existence of a Kähler–Einstein metric, containing many additional relevant results such as the classification of all Kähler–Einstein smooth Fano threefolds with infinite automorphism groups and computations of delta-invariants of all smooth del Pezzo surfaces. This book will be essential reading for researchers and graduate students working on algebraic geometry and complex geometry.
Caffeine consumption occurs throughout life, while nicotine use typically begins during adolescence, the period when caffeine-nicotine epidemiological association begins in earnest. Despite that, few studies in animal models parallel the pattern of coexposure that occurs in humans. Therefore, the neurobehavioral consequences of the association between these drugs remain unclear. Here, we exposed Swiss mice to lifetime caffeine. Caffeine solutions of 0.1 g/L (CAF0.1), 0.3 g/L (CAF0.3), or water (CTRL) were used as the sole liquid source, being offered to progenitors until weaning and, after that, directly to the offspring until the last day of adolescent behavioral evaluation. The open field test was used to evaluate acute effects of nicotine, of lifetime caffeine and of their interaction on locomotion and anxiety-like behavior, while the conditioned place preference test was used to assess the impact of caffeine on nicotine (0.5 mg/Kg, i.p.) reward. Frontal cerebral cortex dopamine content, dopamine turnover, and norepinephrine levels, as well as hippocampal serotonin 1A receptor expression were assessed. CAF0.3 mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior when compared to CAF0.1 and CTRL ones, but nicotine coexposure mitigated the anxiogenic-like caffeine-induced effect. Distinctively, caffeine had no effect on locomotion and failed to interfere with both nicotine-induced hyperactivity and place preference. There were no significant effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic markers. In conclusion, although caffeine did not affect nicotine reward, considering the strong association between anxiety disorders and tobacco consumption, caffeine-induced anxiety-like behavior advises limiting its consumption during development, including adolescence, as caffeine could be a risk factor to nicotine use.
Several countries maintain universal health coverage, which implies responsibility to organize delivery formats of healthcare services and products for citizens. In Brazil, the health system has a principle of universal access for more than 30 years, but many deficiencies remain and the country observes a day practice for those seeking judicial decisions to determine provision of healthcare.
This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effect of carvone nanoemulsions on Haemonchus contortus. Three R-carvone nanoemulsions were prepared: uncoated R-carvone nanoemulsions homogenized in a sonicator (UNAlg-son) and homogenized in an ultrahomogenizer (UNAlg-ultra) and sodium alginate-coated R-carvone (CNAlg-ultra). The physicochemical characterizations of the nanoemulsions were carried out. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated using egg hatch test (EHT), larval development test (LDT) and adult worm motility test (AWMT). Changes in cuticle induced in adult H. contortus were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results were subjected to analysis of variance and compared using the Tukey test (P < 0.05). The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching and larval development was calculated. The particle sizes were 281.1 nm (UNAlg-son), 152.7 nm (UNAlg-ultra) and 557.8 nm (CNAlg-ultra), and the zeta potentials were −15 mV (UNAlg-son), −10.8 mV (UNAlg-ultra) and −24.2 mV (CNAlg-ultra). The encapsulation efficiency was 99.84 ± 0.01%. SEM of the nanoemulsions showed an increase in size. In EHT, the EC50 values of UNAlg-son, UNAlg-ultra and CNAlg-ultra were 0.19, 0.02 and 0.17 mg mL−1, respectively. In LDT, they were 0.29, 0.31 and 0.95 mg mL−1 for UNAlg-son, UNAlg-ultra and CNAlg-ultra, respectively. The adult motility inhibition was 100% after 12 h of exposure to UNAlg-ultra and CNAlg-ultra, while for UNAlg-son, it was 79.16%. SEM showed changes in the buccal capsule and cuticular damage. It was concluded that R-carvone nanoemulsions showed antiparasitic action demonstrating promise for the control of infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants.
Herbicide-resistant weed management is one of the greatest agricultural challenges in crop production. Thus, the quick identification of herbicide-resistant weeds is extremely important for management. This study aimed to evaluate resistance to PSI-inhibiting herbicides (diquat) and physiological response to paraquat application in Sumatran fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker; syn.: Erigeron sumatrensis Retz.]. The research was conducted with two C. sumatrensis biotypes, one susceptible and the other with multiple resistance to herbicides from five different modes of action (glyphosate, paraquat, diuron, saflufenacil, and 2,4-D). A dose–response assay was carried out to evaluate herbicide resistance to diquat in the paraquat-resistant C. sumatrensis biotype. The enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence were measured in both biotypes after paraquat (400 g ai ha−1) application. The dose–response assay confirmed resistance of C. sumatrensis to diquat with resistance factor levels of 26-fold and 6-fold for LD50 and GR50 values, respectively, compared with the susceptible biotype. Accumulation of H2O2 occurred more rapidly in the paraquat-susceptible biotype than in the resistant one. Paraquat treatment caused an increase in SOD and APX activity in the susceptible biotype, but antioxidant enzyme activities were unaffected by paraquat in the resistant one at 5 h after application (HAA). Chl a fluorescence increased across the first 4 HAA in both resistant and susceptible biotypes. However, at 24 HAA, the resistant biotype showed a decline in fluorescence close to untreated plants, while the susceptible biotype died, confirming resistance to diquat in the paraquat-resistant C. sumatrensis biotype. The paraquat-resistant biotype does not induce antioxidative enzymes, as a possible mechanism of resistance to paraquat, but shows rapid recovery of photosynthesis and continuous growth when subjected to paraquat, while the paraquat-susceptible biotype does not survive.
To evaluate the association of the consumption of foods of the ultra-processed group (UPF) with inflammatory markers in the adolescent population in Northeastern Brazil.
A cross-sectional population-based study. Food consumption was evaluated using two 24-h dietary recalls using the NOVA classification for food processing levels. The following inflammatory markers were evaluated: adiponectin, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF-α. Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the association between the percentage of UPF energy contribution and inflammatory markers.
São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil.
The sample consisted of 391 male and female adolescents, aged from 17 to 18 years.
The average daily energy consumption by adolescents was 8032·9 kJ/d, of which 26·1 % originated from UPF. The upper tertile (T3) of UPF consumption presented higher intake of simple carbohydrates, lipids, saturated fat, and Na and lower protein intake. Individuals in T3 presented higher serum leptin and CRP levels (P < 0·05). Adolescents with UPF energy consumption ≥30·0 % (tertile 3 of UPF) had a 79 % (exp (0·58) = 1·79) increase in IL-8 levels when compared with adolescents in tertile 1 of UPF (P = 0·013).
The association between the consumption of UPF, poor quality diet and pro-inflammatory markers have important harmful effects that can be observed as early as in adolescence.