To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We combine two scanning electron microscopy techniques to investigate the influence of dislocations on the light emission from nitride semiconductors. Combining electron channeling contrast imaging and cathodoluminescence imaging enables both the structural and luminescence properties of a sample to be investigated without structural damage to the sample. The electron channeling contrast image is very sensitive to distortions of the crystal lattice, resulting in individual threading dislocations appearing as spots with black–white contrast. Dislocations giving rise to nonradiative recombination are observed as black spots in the cathodoluminescence image. Comparison of the images from exactly the same micron-scale region of a sample demonstrates a one-to-one correlation between the presence of single threading dislocations and resolved dark spots in the cathodoluminescence image. In addition, we have also obtained an atomic force microscopy image from the same region of the sample, which confirms that both pure edge dislocations and those with a screw component (i.e., screw and mixed dislocations) act as nonradiative recombination centers for the Si-doped c-plane GaN thin film investigated.
In this paper we describe the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping and electron channeling contrast imaging—in the scanning electron microscope—to study tilt, atomic steps and dislocations in epitaxial GaN thin films. We show results from epitaxial GaN thin films and from a just coalesced epitaxial laterally overgrown GaN thin film. From our results we deduce that EBSD may be used to measure orientation changes of the order of 0.02°, in GaN thin films. As EBSD has a spatial resolution of ≈ 20 nm, this means we have a powerful technique with which to quantitatively map surface tilt. We also demonstrate that channeling contrast in electron channeling contrast images may be used to image tilt, atomic steps and threading dislocations in GaN thin films.
Comparative studies have been carried out on the cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties of GaN implanted with Tm and GaN co-implanted with Tm and a low concentration of Er. Room temperature CL spectra were acquired in an electron probe microanalyser to investigate the rare earth emission. The room temperature CL intensity exhibits a strong dependence on the annealing temperature of the implanted samples. The results of CL temperature dependence are reported for blue emission (∼ 477 nm) which is due to intra 4f-shell electron transitions (1G4 → 3H6) associated with Tm3+ ions. The 477 nm blue CL emission is enhanced strongly as the annealing temperature increases up to 1200°C. Blue PL emission has also been observed from the sample annealed at 1200°C. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of blue PL emission from Tm implanted GaN samples. Intra-4f transitions from the 1D2 level (∼ 465 nm emission lines) of Tm3+ ions in GaN have been observed in GaN:Tm films at temperatures between 20–200 K. We will discuss the temperature dependent Tm3+ emission in both GaN:Tm,Er and GaN:Tm samples.
In this paper we illustrate the application of electron beam techniques to the measurement of strain, defect and alloy concentrations in nitride thin films. We present brief comparative studies of CL spectra of AlGaN and InGaN epilayers and EBSD patterns obtained from two silicon-doped 3 μm thick GaN epilayers grown on an on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate and a sapphire substrate misoriented by 10° toward the m-plane (10 0).
In this paper we illustrate the application of electron beam techniques to the measurement of strain, defect and alloy concentrations in nitride thin films. We present brief comparative studies of CL spectra of AlGaN and InGaN epilayers and EBSD patterns obtained from two silicon-doped 3 μm thick GaN epilayers grown on an on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate and a sapphire substrate misoriented by 10° toward the m-plane (1010).
Three silicon-doped 3 µm thick GaN epilayers were grown simultaneously by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates misorientated by 0°, 4° and 10° toward the m-plane (100). A comparative study of these epilayers was undertaken using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, CL spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Low temperature PL of the 0° and 4° epilayers shows donor bound exciton (BE) emission between 3.47 and 3.48 eV and a low level of yellow band emission. The peak intensities of both emission bands are a factor of 2 higher for the 4° layer. In the 10° epilayer, the BE band is 3x stronger than in the 0° epilayer but there is no discernible yellow band. However, a number of additional bands appear at 3.459, 3.417, 3.362, 3.345, 3.309, and 3.285 eV. These bands, some of which are acceptor related, may be attributed to the presence of structural defects in this epilayer, pointing to an abrupt degradation of its structural quality compared to the others. This degradation is confirmed by AFM studies. On a 20 µm x 20 µm image the 0° and 4° epilayers exhibit smooth surface morphologies, while the 10° epilayer shows a high density of hexagonal pits. Finally, SEM images reveal the surface of the 10° epilayer to be “streaked” and pitted. Low temperature CL images at 3.48 eV (bound exciton region) show random spotty emission, while those at 3.28 eV and 3.41 eV exhibit a streaky appearance similar to the SEM image. This suggests that these luminescence bands are indeed associated with structural defects.
In this paper we examine a series of four GaN epilayers grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates with different AlN buffer layer thicknesses. We examine the effect of the buffer layer thickness on the physical and optical properties of the samples via optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging and photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. While the morphological and optical properties of all the films (excepting that with the thinnest buffer layer of 30 nm) are good, i.e., the films are smooth and the luminescence is dominated by excitonic luminescence, a number of circular island like features are observed in all the films whose density decrease with increasing buffer layer thickness. A large circular island present on the sample with the thinnest buffer layer and surrounded by cracks in the directions, displays some interesting acceptor related luminescence.
In this paper we compare gallium nitride (GaN) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (Al2O3), gallium arsenide (GaAs (111)B) and lithium gallate (LiGaO2) substrates. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy are used to characterise the films. From growth runs carried out to date, GaN films on GaAs substrates exhibit the best surface uniformity and the cleanest luminescence.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.