To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Forests provide vital ecosystem services crucial to human well-being and sustainable development, and have an important role to play in achieving the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Little attention, however, has yet focused on how efforts to achieve the SDGs will impact forests and forest-related livelihoods, and how these impacts may, in turn, enhance or undermine the contributions of forests to climate and development. This book discusses the conditions that influence how SDGs are implemented and prioritised, and provides a systematic, multidisciplinary global assessment of interlinkages among the SDGs and their targets, increasing understanding of potential synergies and unavoidable trade-offs between goals. Ideal for academic researchers, students and decision-makers interested in sustainable development in the context of forests, this book will provide invaluable knowledge for efforts undertaken to reach the SDGs. This title is available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.
Background: Psychological therapy services are often required to demonstrate their effectiveness and are implementing systematic monitoring of patient progress. A system for measuring patient progress might usefully ‘inform supervision’ and help patients who are not progressing in therapy. Aims: To examine if continuous monitoring of patient progress through the supervision process was more effective in improving patient outcomes compared with giving feedback to therapists alone in routine NHS psychological therapy. Method: Using a stepped wedge randomized controlled design, continuous feedback on patient progress during therapy was given either to the therapist and supervisor to be discussed in clinical supervison (MeMOS condition) or only given to the therapist (S-Sup condition). If a patient failed to progress in the MeMOS condition, an alert was triggered and sent to both the therapist and supervisor. Outcome measures were completed at beginning of therapy, end of therapy and at 6-month follow-up and session-by-session ratings. Results: No differences in clinical outcomes of patients were found between MeMOS and S-Sup conditions. Patients in the MeMOS condition were rated as improving less, and more ill. They received fewer therapy sessions. Conclusions: Most patients failed to improve in therapy at some point. Patients’ recovery was not affected by feeding back outcomes into the supervision process. Therapists rated patients in the S-Sup condition as improving more and being less ill than patients in MeMOS. Those patients in MeMOS had more complex problems.
Observational studies report associations between early menarche and higher levels of depressive symptoms and depression. However, no studies have investigated whether this association is causal.
To determine whether earlier menarche is a causal risk factor for depressive symptoms and depression in adolescence.
The associations between a genetic score for age at menarche and depressive symptoms at 14, 17 and 19 years, and depression at 18 years, were examined using Mendelian randomisation analysis techniques.
Using a genetic risk score to indicate earlier timing of menarche, we found that early menarche is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at 14 years (odds ratio per risk allele 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.04, n=2404). We did not find an association between the early menarche risk score and depressive symptoms or depression after age 14.
Our results provide evidence for a causal effect of age at menarche on depressive symptoms at age 14.
The remains of Vindonissa, the Roman legionary camp in Switzerland, have been the subject of extensive archaeological studies. Knowledge of the building time plays a role in reconstructions of the history of this site. We radiocarbon dated mortar samples selected from one of the Roman monuments (Westtor) as well as a nearby Medieval monastery. 14C ages obtained on the first fraction and second fraction of very short dissolution appear close to the expected Roman age of ∼2000 BP, while the monastery is dated to historic times, after AD 1308.
The last triennium, and coincidentally the last few years of the 20th century, has been a most remarkable time for Commission 9, and for astronomy in general. Ground-based astronomy in particular has received an enormous boost due to the arrival of an astonishing array of new telescopes, novel instruments and innovative techniques. For those of us closely involved in developing new observatories, instrumentation or detectors, the last few years have been rather hectic! As an astronomer with a long-time interest in the development of new instruments, what amazes me is the breadth of technology and the visionary scope of all these incredible new achievements. Many of the very large 8-10 meter class telescopes are now coming into full operation – yet, just as this is happening, numerous smaller “survey” telescopes are providing a wealth of new sources. Adaptive optics is being practiced at many sites and diffraction-limited imaging from the ground is now a reality. Several optical-IR interferometers are now working and more are coming along very soon. Detectors continue to get bigger and better, especially for the infrared, and instrumentation is increasingly more sophisticated, complex and efficient. Remote observing, robotic telescopes and global networks of telescopes are common, and international collaborations are larger and stronger than ever before.
Most commonly, hearts have either a single arterial trunk or two arterial trunks; however, rare reports exist of a “tritruncal” heart, a heart with three outflow tracts. Here, we present one of the first reports of successful surgical palliation of a triple-outlet right ventricle.
Working within a series of partnerships among an academic health center, local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs), we validated companion interventions to address community mental health planning and response challenges in public health emergency preparedness.
We implemented the project within the framework of an enhanced logic model and employed a multi-cohort, pre-test/post-test design to assess the outcomes of 1-day workshops in psychological first aid (PFA) and guided preparedness planning (GPP). The workshops were delivered to urban and rural communities in eastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Intervention effectiveness was based on changes in relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) and on several behavioral indexes.
Significant improvements were observed in self-reported and objectively measured KSAs across all cohorts. Additionally, GPP teams proved capable of producing quality drafts of basic community disaster plans in 1 day, and PFA trainees confirmed upon follow-up that their training proved useful in real-world trauma contexts. We documented examples of policy and practice changes at the levels of local and state health departments.
Given appropriate guidance, LHDs and FBOs can implement an effective and potentially scalable model for promoting disaster mental health preparedness and community resilience, with implications for positive translational impact.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:511-526)
The intrinsic linearly polarized light arising from electron scattering of stellar radiation in a non-spherically symmetric distribution of gas is a characterizing feature of classical Be stars. The distinct polarimetric signature provides a mean for directly probing the physical and geometric properties of the gaseous material enveloping these rapidly-rotating massive stars. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer computation and a self-consistent radiative equilibrium solution for the circumstellar gas, we explore the role of this observable signature in investigating the dynamical nature of classical Be star disks. In particular, we focus on the potential for using linearly polarized light to develop diagnostics of mass-loss events and to trace the evolution of the gas in a circumstellar disk. An informed context for interpreting the observed linear polarization signature can play an important role in identifying the physical process(es) which govern the formation and dissipation of the gaseous disks surrounding classical Be stars.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
The present study analysed the impact of using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (‘the WHO standards’) compared with the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) international growth reference (‘the NCHS reference’) on the calculated prevalence of chronic malnutrition in children aged 6·0–59·9 months.
Anthropometric data were collected as part of a cross-sectional study exploring the association between household environments and nutritional status of children. Z-scores were computed for height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) using each reference/standard. Results were compared using Bland–Altman plots, percentage agreement, kappa statistics, line graphs and proportion of children in Z-score categories.
The study was conducted in thirteen rural villages within Honduras's department of Intibucá.
Children aged 6·0–59·9 months were the focus of the analysis, and households with children in this age range served as the sampling unit for the study.
The WHO standards yielded lower means for HAZ and higher means for WAZ and WHZ compared with the NCHS reference. The WHO standards and NCHS reference showed good agreement between Z-score categories, except for HAZ among males aged 24·0–35·9 months and WHZ among males aged >24·0 months. Using the WHO standards resulted in higher proportions of stunting (low HAZ) and overweight (high WHZ) and lower proportions of underweight (low WAZ). The degree of difference among these measures varied by age and gender.
The choice of growth reference/standard employed in nutritional surveys may have important methodological and policy implications. While ostensibly comparable, data on nutritional indicators derived with different growth references/standards must be interpreted cautiously.
Borosilicate waste glass durability in simulated repository environments can be assessed by use of static tests in leach vessels fabricated of the representative geomedia. Control of the oxidation potential during the test simulates a basalt repository environment. Under very anoxic conditions (i.e. at negative Eh values), the interactions between basalt and SRP waste glass in silica-saturated basaltic groundwaters are the same as those of basalt and groundwater when no waste glass is present. The lack of significant leaching of ions from the waste glass and the lack of any significant changes in either the leached surfaces of glass or basalt under anoxic conditions suggests that the components of this system are at equilibrium when oxygen is absent.
Assessment of the geologic performance of radioactive waste glasses requires extrapolation of finite tests to very long times. Hydration thermodynamics provides a means to compare the stability of waste glasses to natural analogues and to ancient synthetic glasses. The glass composition is separated into structural components of known free energy of hydration. These are then summed to provide a discrete measure of the stability of a given glass to aqueous attack. Hydration thermodynamics can be used to extend the results of laboratory tests of Savannah River waste glass to the repository environment.
Depression is common in old age and is associated with risk of dementia,
but its neuropathological correlates in the community are unknown.
To investigate for the first time in a population-representative sample
of people with no dementia the association between depression observed
during life and neurofibrillary tangles, diffuse and neuritic plaques,
Lewy bodies, brain atrophy and cerebrovascular disease found in the brain
Out of 456 donations to a population-based study, 153 brains were
selected where donors had no dementia measured in life. Alzheimer and
vascular pathology measures, Lewy bodies and neuronal loss were compared
between those with (n = 36) and without
(n = 117) depression ascertained using a fully
structured diagnostic interview during life. Brain areas examined
included frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortical areas as well
as the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and brain-stem monoaminergic
Depression was significantly associated with the presence of subcortical
Lewy bodies. No association was found between depression and
cerebrovascular or Alzheimer pathology in cortical or subcortical areas,
although depression was associated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus
as well as in some of the subcortical structures investigated (nucleus
basalis, substantia nigra, raphe nucleus).
Late-life depression was associated with subcortical and hippocampal
neuronal loss but not with cerebrovascular or Alzheimer pathology.