The narrow genetic base of existing commercial oil palm cultivars has prompted oil palm breeders to give increased importance to augmenting these genetic resources because the sustainable development of the crop depends largely on the availability of genetic diversity and its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of an ex situ collection of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. populations from the Republic of Cameroon using microsatellite molecular markers. Overall, 31 simple sequence repeats were polymorphic, with a total of 223 alleles, 78.4% of which were found at low frequency. The total genetic diversity was relatively high (HT= 0.673). The genetic differentiation between geographical regions was low (GST= 0.023, P= 0.001), and between families it was high (GST= 0.166, P= 0.001), showing greater variation between families than among geographical regions. The molecular data indicate that genetic diversity among the genotypes evaluated is mainly distributed within regions, suggesting that there is no isolation by geographical distance and that all the sampled individuals form a single diverse population. Therefore, it was concluded that a relatively low number of accessions (120 in the analysed case) that includes at least one representative of each family would allow us to efficiently collect almost the entire genetic diversity of Cameroon within the collection studied. This will allow for the efficient use of genetic resources and a reduction in morpho-agronomic characterization costs.