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Recent excavations at the Early–Middle Formative period site of Altica in the southern piedmont of the Teotihuacan Valley, Mexico, provide evidence for early agriculture and plant use in a rural community in the northern Basin of Mexico. In the Basin of Mexico, settled agricultural communities were present in the southern sector of the region from at least 1200 cal b.c. Initial expansion into the semiarid northern sector of the Basin, however, appears to have taken place towards the end of the Early Formative, during the transition to the Middle Formative when agricultural economies based on maize cultivation became firmly established, setting the scene for increased population density and concomitant social complexity.
Altica is currently the only community in the Teotihuacan Valley spanning this transitional period that has survived in the face of intensive changes in land use over the last three millennia. Macro- and microbotanical evidence recovered from radiocarbon-dated excavated contexts at Altica provide evidence for maize cultivation and suggest a subsistence economy in transition, prior to the establishment of intensive dependence upon a broader range of domesticated and cultivated plants.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: For this reason, our overall objectives are to determine (i) whether natural disaster-related PNMS alters infants’ EC at two years of age, and (ii) if the timing of exposure moderates its effects on toddlers EC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose a longitudinal study with 50 mother-toddler dyads. Natural disaster-related PNMS would be measured at 12-18 and 24-30 months of age and will include: objective exposure and maternal distress. EC will be measured with a questionnaire and a Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery at two years of age. To accomplish our objectives, we will conduct regression and moderation analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that children exposed to Hurricane-related PNMS would present low EC levels compared to those with low prenatal exposure. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results are expected to provide evidence for further promoting early intervention and ameliorating adverse effects of PNMS on child outcomes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our overall objectives are to determine (i) whether natural disaster-related prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) alters infants’ effortful control (EC) at two years of age, and (ii) if the timing of exposure moderates its effects on toddlers EC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We propose a longitudinal study with 50 mother-toddler dyads. Natural disaster-related PNMS would be measured at 12-15 and 18-24 months of age and will include: objective exposure and maternal distress. EC will be measured with a questionnaire and a Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery at two years of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that children exposed to Hurricane-related PNMS would present low EC levels compared to those with low prenatal exposure. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results are expected to provide evidence for further promoting early intervention and ameliorating negative effects of PNMS on child outcomes.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
PA6 and PMMA polymers with different MWCNTs addition (5, 7 and 9 wt %) were synthetized through casting solution, resulting in improvement properties in contrast to pristine polymers. SEM images showed the MWCNTs embedded into polymeric matrices. D, G and G´ bands of MWCNTs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and functional groups observed in both nanocomposites by FTIR demonstrated a strong interaction. A significant increasing in electrical conductivity and microhardness was observed in all the nanocomposites. Major microhardness values were obtained in MWCNTs/PA6 (50 HV) however the MWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposites showed the highest electrical conductivity value (6.4×10-4 S/cm).
The objectives of this study were to replicate the analyses conducted by the creators of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen with a Spanish sample group and compare the results, to present new validity evidences, to analyze which items were more relevant in the detection of situations of risk of abuse, and to establish a cut-off point to interpret the obtained scores. The IOA was used by 46 professionals from social services teams who assessed the situation of 231 elderly individuals and their main caregivers. The obtained results advocated towards unidimensionality of the scale. It showed a high level of internal consistency (α = .94). The Confidence Interval of 99% for the alpha coefficient was between .92 and .95. The ordinal alpha coefficient reached the value of .98. The total score of the scale showed adequate temporal stability (r = .91; p ≤ .001; N = 163). Statistically significant differences (t-test) in the mean scores of most of the items were found between cases of adequate treatment and cases of risk of abuse. The scale classified correctly 93% of all cases. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was found at the cut-off point given by score 16 (Sensitivity = 0.94, Specificity = 0.85). The results appear to confirm the validity evidence of the instrument when used with a Spanish population. However, it is necessary to conduct further research and confirm the results with wider, more representative sample groups.
The aim of this research is to ameliorate the dispersion of pristine and functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) into polystyrene with hydroxyl end groups (PSOH) matrices using low magnetic fields. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using benzene as carbon source; to produce CNTs with and without functional groups two catalysts were used (stainless steel and ferrocene). The obtained nanotubes contained iron nanoparticles inside. PSOH were synthesized using styrene as monomer, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator and 2-MeOH as chain transfer agent. The MWCNTs-PSOH matrices were formed using 1.6 wt % of carbon nanotubes into PSOH and ultrasonic mixing for 30 min. The mixing materials were poured into containers and dry at room temperature. While the material was drying, constant magnetic fields of 0.24 T were being applied for 50 min. The MWCNTs-PSOH composites were analysed by SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. SEM micrographs showed that MWCNTs without functional groups were incorporated in the middle of PSOH. The MWCNTs functionalized perform differently; a better dispersion through the entire polymer matrix was achieved, because the polymer embedded the CNTs. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy showed chemical interaction between PSOH and MWCNTs functionalized. The CNTs dispersion into PSOH was ameliorated through the use of low magnetic fields and functionalization.
Both maternal Fe deficiency (ID) and being overweight or obese (Ow/Ob, BMI≥25 kg/m2) may negatively affect offspring brain development. However, the two risk factors correlate and their independent effects on infant neurodevelopment are unclear. PREOBE is a prospective observational study that included 331 pregnant Spanish women, of whom 166 had pre-gestational Ow/Ob. Fe status was analysed at 34 weeks and at delivery, and babies were assessed using Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment at 18 months. In confounder-adjusted analyses, maternal ID at 34 weeks was associated with lower composite motor scores at 18 months (mean 113·3 (sd 9·9) v. 117·1 (sd 9·2), P=0·039). Further, the offspring of mothers with ID at delivery had lower cognitive scores (114·0 (sd 9·7) v. 121·5 (sd 10·9), P=0·039) and lower receptive, expressive and composite (99·5 (sd 8·6) v. 107·6 (sd 8·3), P=0·004) language scores. The negative associations between maternal ID at delivery and Bayley scores remained even when adjusting for maternal Ow/Ob and gestational diabetes. Similarly, maternal Ow/Ob correlated with lower gross motor scores in the offspring (12·3 (sd 2·0) v. 13·0 (sd 2·1), P=0·037), a correlation that remained when adjusting for maternal ID. In conclusion, maternal ID and pre-gestational Ow/Ob are both negatively associated with Bayley scores at 18 months, but independently and on different subscales. These results should be taken into account when considering Fe supplementation for pregnant women.
To determine the associations between haemoconcentration at the end of pregnancy (third trimester and delivery) and neonatal behaviour in healthy pregnant women supplemented with moderate doses of Fe.
A prospective longitudinal study in which obstetric and clinical history, maternal toxic habits, maternal anxiety and Hb levels were recorded at the third trimester and delivery. Neonatal behaviour was assessed at 48–72 h of age using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.
Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Sant Joan University Hospital in Reus, Tarragona (Spain).
A total of 210 healthy and well-nourished pregnant women and their full-term, normal-weight newborns.
The results showed that, after adjusting for confounders, in the third trimester the risk of haemoconcentration (6·2 % of pregnant women) was related to decreased neonatal state regulation (B=−1·273, P=0·006) and alertness (B=−1·848, P=0·006) scores. In addition, the risk of haemoconcentration at delivery (12·0 % of pregnant women) was also related to decreased neonatal state regulation (B=−0·796, P=0·021) and poor robustness and endurance (B=−0·921, P=0·005) scores.
Our results show that the risk of haemoconcentration at the end of pregnancy is related to the neonate’s neurodevelopment (and self-regulation capabilities), suggesting that Fe supplementation patterns and maternal Fe status during pregnancy are important factors for neurodevelopment which may be carefully controlled.
This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.
We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to a set of neuropsychological data with the aim of corroborating the three cognitive profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) described in the literature, namely: healthy, amnestic, non-amnestic, and multidomain. The ultimate purpose of the LCA was to try to find the underlying classification of MCI and related pathologies by means of the participants’ response patterns, rather than on more classical psychometric criteria, such as the standard deviation of the mean. We computed 547 neuropsychological assessments derived from 223 participants who were assessed annually for three consecutive years. The battery included tests of memory, language, executive function, and praxis. The results obtained by means of LCA, with a four-group solution and using the 40th percentile as the criterion, confirm prior classifications obtained with more questionable psychometric criteria, while providing longitudinal data on the course of MCI and the stability of group assignment over time.
Only one prospective study has analysed the relationship between the inflammatory properties of diet and risk of depression thus far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the incidence of depression. In a cohort study of 15 093 university graduates, participants completed a validated FFQ at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The DII was calculated based on the FFQ. Each of the twenty-eight nutrients or foods received a score based on findings from the peer-reviewed literature reporting on the relationships between diet and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and C-reactive protein). Participants were classified as having depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician, antidepressant drugs, or both. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to quintiles of the DII. After a median 8·5 years of follow-up, we observed 1051 incident cases of depression. The HR for participants in the highest quintile of DII (strongly pro-inflammatory) was 1·47 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·85) compared with those in the bottom quintile, with a significant dose–response relationship (Ptrend=0·01). In the subgroup analyses, the association between DII and depression was stronger among participants >55 years and among those with cardiometabolic comorbidities (HR 2·70; 95 % CI 1·22, 5·97 and HR 1·80; 95 % CI 1·27, 2·57, respectively). A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk of depression in a Mediterranean population. This association was stronger among older subjects and subjects with cardiometabolic diseases.
Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51 %), with a slight majority of men (58·7 %), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20 %), including 24·0 % of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29 % of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The ‘unhealthy’ cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the ‘healthy/PA’ cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the ‘healthy/diet’ cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.
The goal of the study was to analyze the factors associated with quality of life (QoL) in institutionalized older adults with dementia, based on self and proxy ratings, and if these characteristics differ by dementia severity.
Cross-sectional study of 525 people with dementia (PwD) and their caregivers (professional or family caregivers). Two different QoL questionnaires, leading to three measures, were used: QoL in Alzheimer's disease scale (QOL-AD), self and proxy-rated, and QoL in late-stage dementia scale (QUALID), proxy-rated. Multivariate linear regression models were tested for each QoL measure and for mild/moderate and severe stages of dementia.
Multiple regression analyses showed a significant association between the three QoL measures and depression. Functional ability was significantly associated with QoL when assessed by proxy. Other factors such as education level, leisure activities and frequency of visits were significantly related with QOL-AD by proxy. The associated factors that differed by dementia severity were education level for moderate dementia, and frequency of visits and who answered the questionnaire (professional vs. family member) for severe dementia.
QoL was consistently associated with depressive symptoms independently of the measures as well as functional ability and social leisure activities when the QoL questionnaire was rated by proxy. Treating depressive symptoms, increasing social activities and maintaining the functional ability may decrease the deterioration of QoL in institutionalized older adults with dementia.
To evaluate the association of snacking between main meals with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Snack consumption was evaluated using the question: ‘Do you have the habit of snacking between main meals?’ Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95 % confidence intervals using Poisson regression models. An exploratory factor analysis was also used to identify patterns of snacking.
University of Navarra, Spain.
The study included 6851 university graduates, initially free of metabolic syndrome, and followed-up them for a median of 8·3 years.
Among our participants, 34·6 % reported usual snacking between main meals. The cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome was 5·1 % (9·5 % among men and 2·8 % among women). Snacking between main meals was significantly associated with higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome after multivariable adjustment (RR=1·44; 95 %CI 1·18, 1·77). Higher adherence to an ‘unhealthy snacking pattern’ was also independently associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (fourth quartile of adherence compared with non-snacking: RR=1·68; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·29; P for trend <0·001).
Our findings suggest that avoidance of snacking between main meals can be included among the preventive approaches to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome development, especially when snacks contain foods of poor nutritional quality.
Overweight/obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with nutritional habits. High consumption of fried foods might increase the risk of these disorders. However, it is not clear whether the use of vegetables oils for cooking increases the risk of chronic diseases. We systematically searched for published studies that assessed the association between vegetable oil consumption including fried food consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity or weight gain, T2DM or the metabolic syndrome, and CVD or hypertension in the following databases: PubMed; Web of Science; Google Scholar. Keywords such as ‘fried food’ or ‘vegetable oil’ or ‘frying’ or ‘frying oils’ or ‘dietary fats’ and ‘weight gain’ or ‘overweight’ or ‘obesity’ or ‘CHD’ or ‘CVD’ or ‘type 2 diabetes’ or ‘metabolic syndrome’ were used in the primary search. Additional published reports were obtained through other sources. A total of twenty-three publications were included based on specific selection criteria. Based on the results of the studies included in the present systematic review, we conclude that (1) the myth that frying foods is generally associated with a higher risk of CVD is not supported by the available evidence; (2) virgin olive oil significantly reduces the risk of CVD clinical events, based on the results of a large randomised trial that included as part of the intervention the recommendation to use high amounts of virgin olive oil, also for frying foods; and (3) high consumption of fried foods is probably related to a higher risk of weight gain, though the type of oil may perhaps modify this association.
This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children’s Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = –.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = –.187, p < .001), persistent anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = –1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p < .001). Socio-economic status (SES) was positively related to academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.
The Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ) has been used in psychology research during the last decade. The instrument has been used in a variety of life domains: psychological well-being, dispositional happiness, depressive symptoms and career adaptability. This investigation studies the factor structure and internal consistency of the SRQ, extracting a short version in the Spanish context and examining its relation to academic variables (self-regulated learning and grades). The analysis started from a version with 63 items, representing seven conceptual dimensions. This version was administered to a sample of 834 students from Education and Psychology. The data from the above-mentioned sample were randomly divided into two sets, each containing 50% of the students (n = 417): exploratory and confirmatory. In the exploratory sample, exploratory factor analysis findings suggested a more parsimonious measurement model, with 17 items and 4 first-order factors. The confirmatory sample was used in the confirmatory factor analysis. The results show evidence for the internal consistency of the Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ) in the Spanish context, with indices greater than .90 and errors around .05. Regarding academic variables, both versions are related to self-regulated learning (r = .40, p < .01) and students’ grades (r = .15, p < .01). Differences from other studies done in North America are discussed, as well as similarities to a study from North-West University (in South Africa).