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Path planning represents planning collision-free strategies to move from starting point to ending point. These strategies can be carried out for known and unknown environments. Recently, a novel and reduced CPU-time modeling and simulation methodology for path planning in known environment based on resistive grids (RGs) has been introduced. In this work, a novel modified version of Resistive Grid Path Planning Methodology (RGPPM) methodology is presented with the purpose of exploring collision-free path planning for robotic arms. This extension of the methodology allows to numerically relate positions in the RG with angular values of the robotic systems. In addition, it is possible to include obstacles in the configuration space, and therefore collision detection can be established for RGs. Finally, the variation of links for robotic arms and obstacles for configuration space is explored by simulating different scenarios.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of using the new Cardia Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch referring to the perforation of polyvinyl alcohol membrane.
Great advances have been made in the development of devices for closure of atrial septal defect. The Cardia Ultrasept II™ with interposed Goretex patch is the modified last generation of Cardia devices, having the advantage of a super-low profile within the atria and an integral locking delivery-retrieval mechanism that ensures safe deployment. In addition, with the interposition of the Goretex, it has been possible to abolish perforation of Ivalon’s membrane as a complication.
Methods and results
Patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defect with surrounding rims with a minimum length of 5 mm and who underwent atrial septal defect closure with the new Ultrasept II™ with Goretex patch were included from two paediatric cardiac centres. Primary end point was to determine perforation of the Goretex membrane at follow-up; secondary end point included right ventricular diastolic diameter. In total, 30 patients underwent atrial septal defect closure at a median age of 6 (1–29) years. At follow-up for 6 (range, 1–15) months, freedom from perforations was 100%. A continuous decrease in right ventricular diastolic diameter was found with an initial median of 30 (25–49) mm and after catheterisation of 27.5 (18–33) mm, p=0.01, and Z-score of 2.6 (1.7–3.6) versus 1.9 (1–2.9) after procedure, p=0.01.
The new modified generation of the Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch is a good alternative to achieve atrial septal defect closure safely and feasibly with no membrane perforation at follow-up.
Temperature is an environmental factor that influences the development of fish, and when changed abruptly can lead to high mortality. Some species of fish are influenced by this factor, exhibiting a longer time for embryonic development and time to first feeding. This study aims to evaluate the effect of water temperature on embryonic and larval development up to first feeding, to describe the time in hours post fertilization (hpf) of the emergence of different structures and to determine the best hatching rate and survival of animals under different treatments. Five different egg incubation temperatures were used (24, 26, 28, 30 or 32°C, respectively). The eggs were observed at regular intervals of 30 min up to 24 h, every 2 h until 48 h and every 4 h until the display of first feeding in all treatments. Embryonic development was longer for eggs incubated at 24°C and the best results for hatching rate and survival of spawning efficiency were at 28°C. We recommend that incubation of Trichogaster leeri eggs is carried out at 28°C up to the first feeding of larvae.
In response to the 1991 Supreme Court decision resuscitating the presumption against extraterritoriality [hereinafter “PAE” or “presumption”], EEOC v. Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco), Larry Kramer described the presumption as an anachronism—a throwback to the strict territorialist approach to choice of law that prevailed before the mid-Twentieth Century but has been mostly abandoned since then. The title of his scathing article, Vestiges of Beale, referred to Joseph Beale, the Harvard Law professor and reporter of the First Restatement of Conflict of Laws, whose since-discredited theories underlay that Restatement’s approach to choice of law. In the cases since Aramco, the Court has strengthened and expanded the presumption. With its decision in RJR Nabisco v. European Community, it is fair to say, the Court has out-Beale’d Beale.
The American Law Institute (ALI) has recently embarked on the project of elaborating a new Restatement of Conflict of Laws. Its first two Restatements on this subject have been enormously influential. The Ali began its work on the First Restatement in 1923, naming Joseph Beale of the Harvard Law School as its Reporter. Adopted in 1934, the First Restatement reflected the highly territorialist approach to the conflict of laws that had long prevailed in this country. Even before the First Restatement’s adoption, the First Restatement’s territorialist approach, and the “vested rights” theory on which it was based, was subjected to intense scholarly criticism. Nevertheless, the First Restatement’s approach continued to prevail in the United States until the New York Court of Appeals initiated a “choice-of-law revolution” in the early 1960’s with its decision in Babcock v. Jackson. Although most states have departed from the First Restatement’s approach, the First Restatement retains its adherents. Ten states continue to follow the First Restatement for tort cases and twelve states for contract cases.
The drainage area of the Iberian Ranges (NE Spain) houses one of the most extensive Quaternary fluvial tufaceous records in Europe. In this study, tufa deposits in the Añamaza, Mesa, Piedra and Ebrón river valleys were mapped, stratigraphically described and chronologically referenced from U/Th disequilibrium series, amino acid racemization and radiocarbon methods. Tufa deposits accumulated in cascades, barrage-cascades and related damming areas developed in stepped fluvial systems. The maximum frequency of tufa deposition was identified at 120 ka (Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage [MIS] 5e), 102 ka (MIS 5c), 85 ka (~ MIS 5a) and 7 ka (MIS 1), probably under warmer and wetter conditions than today. Additional phases of tufa deposition appear at ~ 353 ka (~ end of MIS 11), 258–180 ka (MIS 7) and 171–154 ka (MIS 6). Although most tufa deposition episodes are clearly correlated with interstadial periods, the occurrence of tufa deposits during the penultimate glaciation (MIS 6) is remarkable, indicating that the onset of this stage was climatically favourable in the Iberian Peninsula. Biostatic conditions and the dynamics of karstic systems regulating tufa deposition seem to be sensitive to the precipitation regime, controlled by shifts in the position of North Atlantic atmospheric belts, and summer insolation, regulated by orbital forcing.
Jassa slatteryi is reported for the first time in Mar del Plata harbour, Argentina. A morphological comparison with the original description and a genetic analysis are made to corroborate the identification of specimens. The report of range expansion along the South-western Atlantic coast is discussed.
The aim of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus), and to determine the time required, hours post fertilization (hpf), for the emergence of various structures. To describe embryonic and larval stages, observations were made at regular periods under an optical microscope and images were taken with a digital camera attached to a microscope. The average temperature reached in the experimental tank was 27.9°C. Important facts in embryonic and larval development are described, such as the closure of the blastopore, which occurred at 31.5 hpf; a period of eruption, which occurred at 58.5 hpf; and a mouth opening, which occurred at 90.5 hpf; and larvae that exhibited oriented swimming and eating exogenous food at 136.5 hpf.
Two distinct Pleistocene assemblages from SE Santiago Island are comparable to modern analogues elsewhere in the Cape Verde Islands. A low-diversity Siderastrea radians assemblage lived atop basalt knobs surrounded by sand on a slope below a cliff. A Millepora alcicornis–Megabalanus azoricus assemblage occupied the cliff. The latter was a typical rocky-shore assemblage from a high-energy setting below the tidal zone. Bioerosion structures in basalt produced by Circolites kotoncensis and Gastrochaenolites isp. also occur there. Despite extensive studies on local limestone deposits in 1832 and 1836, lack of exposure prevented Darwin from seeing these fossils.
Much of the recent debate about the status of customary international law in the U.S. legal system has revolved around the alien tort provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789, currently section 1350 of Title 28. In Filártiga v. Peña-Irala, the decision that launched modern human rights litigation in the United States, the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit relied on the view that customary international law has the status of federal common law in upholding section 1350’s grant of federal jurisdiction over a suit between aliens. The court’s position that customary international law was federal law was the prevailing view at the time—a view that has subsequently been dubbed the “modern position.” It was the view set forth in the black letter of the Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law. Filártiga triggered a revisionist challenge to the modern position, with revisionists arguing that customary international law has the status of federal law only if given that status through statute or treaty, or perhaps through sole executive action; in the absence of such incorporation, customary international law has, at best, the status of State law in our legal system.
Introduction. Xoconostles or acidic cactus pears (Opuntia
spp.) are fruits prized for their fleshy and acidic mesocarp; they
are morphologically different from cactus pears which are sweet, juicy
and seedy. Both thrive in semiarid highlands of Central Mexico,
tolerate poor soils and scanty rainfall, and have evolved into formal
crops during the last five decades. Wild xoconostles are ubiquitous
in Mexican semiarid regions. Domesticated genotypes are found in
backyards and commercial orchards. Folk wisdom attributes xoconostle
with antihypoglycemic effects, cholesterol control and obesity reduction.
The peel presents higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry, raspberry,
red plum, grapefruit, pear and apple. Our investigation describes
the main cultivars of xoconostles with horticultural value for human consumption
in Central Mexico; it contributes to the elucidation of their morphological
relationships. Materials and methods. Twenty-one accessions from
the Hidalgo and Zacatecas states of Mexico were described using 27 variables
from cladodes, flowers and fruits; significant variables were selected
by correlation and PCA, and thereafter a cluster analysis and discriminant
canonical analysis were performed. Results. Thirteen variables were
found to be significant to discriminate accessions: cladode length, number
of rows of areoles, number of areoles in the central row, pericarp
length and width, fruit length, fruit diameter, [length / diameter]
ratio, areole density, receptacle depth, fruit and peel weight,
and pulp acidity. Two canonical roots (Can) explained variability:
Can1 (fruit areola density, acidity, number of areole rows, and number
of areoles in the central row) explained 87.55%, and Can2 (peel weight,
fruit weight and fruit diameter) explained the remaining 12.45%.
Discussion. Can1 was related to plant productivity, while Can2 comprised
mainly fruit quality traits. Both of these traits are of primary
interest for human utilization and have had a clear effect on domestication. Clusters
did not match the actual taxonomic classification.
A general chemistry experiment has been adapted in which electrochemical principles in fuel cells are applied to the curriculum, thus bringing research into the classroom. It is well documented that students struggle in understanding redox reactions, in particular when applied to an electrochemical cell. There are three basic concepts needed to analyze these energy devices: anode, cathode and electrolyte.
In the proposed experiment, undergraduate students explored the role on an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell. Inquiry based methods were used to introduce the experiment. Explanations of fundamental electrochemical concepts involved in fuel cells were introduced to the students with pre- and post-laboratory activities and experimental results discussions. The lesson for the experiment “role of an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell” was planned to improve students’ technological skills and application of knowledge acquired in daily life. The battery was made using household materials: zinc, copper and napkin paper soaked in different electrolyte solutions. Students correlated the voltage of the cells with the substances being used in the experiment and classified these as strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte or non electrolyte. A variety of assessment tools were designed and incorporated during the experience to probe students understanding in the main topics and to identify the struggles during their learning process.
This paper provides an overview of the research carried on in the EASY-A project concerning the design of antennas for different applications in the unlicensed band around 60 GHz, and their integration into compact RF front-ends. Different antenna configurations, in conventional microwave substrate and low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC), were studied and fabricated. The results comply with the requirements established for various scenarios.
The transformation of benzoin to tetraphenylfuran catalyzed with a superacid sulfonic clay under different reaction conditions was investigated. Three products with different yields were produced under a nitrogen stream and four products were obtained under an air atmosphere.