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This exploratory study investigated the effects of early vs. delayed time-restricted eating (TRE) plus caloric restriction (CR) on body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with overweight and obesity. Adults (20 to 40 years) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 8 weeks: early TRE (eTRE; 8:00-16:00) plus CR, delayed TRE (dTRE; 12:00-20:00) plus CR, or only CR (CR; 8:00-20:00). All groups were prescribed a 25% energy deficit relative to daily energy requirements. Thirteen participants completed the study in the eTRE and CR groups, and eleven in the dTRE group (n=37). After the interventions, there was no significant difference between the three groups for any of the outcomes. Compared to baseline, significant decreases were observed in body weight (eTRE group: -4.2 kg; 95% CI, -5.6 to -2.7; dTRE group: -4.8 Kg; 95% CI, -5.9 to -3.7; CR: -4.0 kg; 95% CI, -5.9 to -2.1), fat mass (eTRE group: -2.9 kg; 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.9; dTRE group: -3.6 Kg; 95% CI, -4.6 to -2.5; CR: -3.1 kg; 95% CI, -4.3 to -1.8), and fasting glucose levels (eTRE group: -4 mg/dL; 95% CI, -8 to -1; dTRE group: -2 mg/dL; 95% CI, -8 to 3; CR: -3 mg/dL; 95% CI, -8 to 2). In a free-living setting, TRE with a caloric deficit, regardless of the time of day, promotes similar benefits in weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic parameters. However, given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.
Schistosoma mansoni is the main causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis which affects millions of people worldwide. At the larval stage, miracidia are released into bodies of water where they utilize their motility to successfully infect their intermediate host, snails. Here, we revisit the motility and survival of S. mansoni miracidia throughout its life span. Briefly, miracidia motility was monitored at 30-min and 60-min intervals under the presence/absence of natural/artificial light. Based on a subjective evaluation of activity, body shape and transparency, 6 categories of miracidia activity were established from its fully active stage to its immobile larva stage. The estimated life span of miracidia was 5.8 and 3.5 h in the experiments with 60-min and 30-min observation intervals, respectively. Death was defined by an absence of cilia and body movement. When mobility was used as a proxy for infectivity, infective miracidia were detected at 2.5 and 4.5 h, respectively. The present miracidia motility and survival re-evaluation supports parameters optimization for computational modelling of schistosomiasis transmission dynamics. Target control interventions, especially at late stages next to transmission interruption, may greatly benefit from improved modelling studies.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Children with CHD may be at increased risk for epilepsy. While the incidence of perioperative seizures after surgical repair of CHD has been well-described, the incidence of epilepsy is less well-defined. We aim to determine the incidence and predictors of epilepsy in patients with CHD.
Retrospective cohort study of patients with CHD who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass at <2 years of age between January, 2012 and December, 2013 and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Clinical variables were extracted from a cardiac surgery database and hospital records. Seizures were defined as acute if they occurred within 7 days after an inciting event. Epilepsy was defined based on the International League Against Epilepsy criteria.
Two-hundred and twenty-one patients were identified, 157 of whom were included in our analysis. Five patients (3.2%) developed epilepsy. Acute seizures occurred in 12 (7.7%) patients, only one of whom developed epilepsy. Predictors of epilepsy included an earlier gestational age, a lower birth weight, a greater number of cardiac surgeries, a need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or a left ventricular assist device, arterial ischaemic stroke, and a longer hospital length of stay.
Epilepsy in children with CHD is rare. The mechanism of epileptogenesis in these patients may be the result of a complex interaction of patient-specific factors, some of which may be present even before surgery. Larger long-term follow-up studies are needed to identify risk factors associated with epilepsy in these patients.
Our objective was to evaluate the genetic merit of Holstein cattle population in southern Brazil in response to variations in the regional temperature by analyzing the genotype by environment interaction using reaction norms. Fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) data of 67 360 primiparous cows were obtained from the database of the Paraná Holstein Breeders Association, Brazil (APCBRH). The regional average annual temperature was used as the environmental variable. A random regression model was adopted applying mixed models with Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) algorithm using WOMBAT software. The genetic merit of the 15 most representative bulls, depending on the temperature gradient, was evaluated. Heritability ranged from 0.21 to 0.27 for FY and from 0.14 to 0.20 for PY. The genetic correlation observed among the environmental gradients proved to be higher than 0.80 for both traits. Slight reranking of bulls for both traits was detected, demonstrating that non-relevant genotype by environment interaction for FY and PY were observed. Consequently, no inclusion of the temperature effect in the model of genetic evaluation in southern Brazilian Holstein breed is required.
Copy number variants (CNVs) play a significant role in disease pathogenesis in a small subset of individuals with schizophrenia (~2.5%). Chromosomal microarray testing is a first-tier genetic test for many neurodevelopmental disorders. Similar testing could be useful in schizophrenia.
To determine whether clinically identifiable phenotypic features could be used to successfully model schizophrenia-associated (SCZ-associated) CNV carrier status in a large schizophrenia cohort.
Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves tested the accuracy of readily identifiable phenotypic features in modelling SCZ-associated CNV status in a discovery data-set of 1215 individuals with psychosis. A replication analysis was undertaken in a second psychosis data-set (n = 479).
In the discovery cohort, specific learning disorder (OR = 8.12; 95% CI 1.16–34.88, P = 0.012), developmental delay (OR = 5.19; 95% CI 1.58–14.76, P = 0.003) and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder (OR = 5.87; 95% CI 1.28–19.69, P = 0.009) were significant independent variables in modelling positive carrier status for a SCZ-associated CNV, with an area under the ROC (AUROC) of 74.2% (95% CI 61.9–86.4%). A model constructed from the discovery cohort including developmental delay and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder variables resulted in an AUROC of 83% (95% CI 52.0–100.0%) for the replication cohort.
These findings suggest that careful clinical history taking to document specific neurodevelopmental features may be informative in screening for individuals with schizophrenia who are at higher risk of carrying known SCZ-associated CNVs. Identification of genomic disorders in these individuals is likely to have clinical benefits similar to those demonstrated for other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL−1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL−1. Both AgEO and guaiol were safe for macrophages up to 100 µg mL−1, as evaluated by the dehydrogenase activity, membrane integrity and phagocytic capacity. AgEO and guaiol did not induce nitrite oxide (NO) in resting macrophages and inhibited the production of NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis suggested that AgEO and guaiol act directly on parasites, affecting promastigotes kinetoplast, mitochondrial matrix and plasma membrane. Together, these results pointed out that AgEO and guaiol could be promising candidates to develop anti-Leishmania drugs.
This paper is focused on explaining the radiation test in temperature performed on the Engineering and Qualification Model of the Medium Gain Antenna Radiofrequency (MGA-RFA) Assembly of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The goal of this program is to observe and study Mercury and its surroundings in a very demanding environment in terms of temperature and radiation. The MGA is an X-band two-axis steerable horn, which provides bidirectional communications between spacecraft and Earth as backup of the High Gain Antenna and also operates as primary communication link at several mission stages or conditions. The paper presents the measurement set-up for the qualification campaign of the antenna, where it was necessary to characterize the antenna in a representative thermal environment, and the results obtained from this test. Results of test up to 150°C show how gain and radiation pattern shapes are slightly affected by thermal stress, but without jeopardizing mission requirements. In addition, by analyzing correlation of this test with RF analysis in the same thermal conditions, it becomes possible to accurately extrapolate the MGA-RFA behavior up to temperatures of more than 500°C. This fact allowed the successful space qualification of this model.
Both undernutrition and hypoxia exert a negative influence on both growth pattern and bone mechanical properties in developing rats. The present study explored the effects of chronic food restriction on both variables in growing rats exposed to simulated high-altitude hypoxia. Male rats (n 80) aged 28 d were divided into normoxic (Nx) and hypoxic (Hx) groups. Hx rats were exposed to hypobaric air (380 mmHg) in decompression chambers. At T0, Nx and Hx rats were subdivided into four equal subgroups: normoxic control and hypoxic controls, and normoxic growth-restricted and hypoxic growth-restricted received 80 % of the amount of food consumed freely by their respective controls for a 4-week period. Half of these animals were studied at the end of this period (T4). The remaining rats in each group continued under the same environmental conditions, but food was offered ad libitum to explore the type of catch-up growth during 8 weeks. Structural bone properties (strength and stiffness) were evaluated in the right femur midshaft by the mechanical three-point bending test; geometric properties (length, cross-sectional area, cortical mass, bending cross-sectional moment of inertia) and intrinsic properties of the bone tissue (elastic modulus) were measured or derived from appropriate equations. Bone mineralisation was assessed by ash measurement of the left femur. These data indicate that the growth-retarded effects of diminished food intake, induced either by food restriction or hypoxia-related inhibition of appetite, generated the formation of corresponding smaller bones in which subnormal structural and geometric properties were observed. However, they seemed to be appropriate to the body mass of the animals and suggest, therefore, that the bones were not osteopenic. When food restriction was imposed in Hx rats, the combined effects of both variables were additive, inducing a further reduction of bone mass and bone load-carrying capacity. In all cases, the mechanical properties of the mineralised tissue were unaffected. This and the capacity of the treated bones to undergone complete catch-up growth with full restoration of the biomechanical properties suggest that undernutrition, under either Nx or Hx conditions, does not affect bone behaviour because it remains appropriate to its mechanical functions.
Introduction. The jabuticaba tree (Myrciaria
jabuticaba) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and produces a small fruit, native
to central, southern and southeastern Brazil. Materials and methods. Fruits
of 25 progenies of the jabuticaba tree, grown in a tropical highland climate, were
evaluated as to physical, physicochemical and chemical characteristics: weight,
longitudinal and transverse diameters, pulp and peel yields, seed mass, number of seeds
per fruit, pulp and peel moisture, soluble solids, titratable acidity, [soluble
solids/titratable acidity] ratio, pH, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. The experimental
design was completely randomized, the treatments being the 25 jabuticaba tree progenies.
Results. A significant effect among progenies was observed for all
characteristics evaluated. The chemical composition showed that the jabuticaba peel has a
high phenolic compound content, and considerable flavonoid content. These results indicate
that there is variability for the characteristics analyzed, enabling the economic
exploitation of jabuticaba tree fruits for in natura consumption and
processing. Conclusions. The physical and chemical characteristics combined
can be proposed as excellent tools to select superior progenies. The fruits of five
progenies showed desirable characteristics for the in natura market,
while fruits of five other progenies hold high concentrations of natural antioxidants and
may be listed as excellent options for the food industry.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and a leading aetiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Definitive diagnosis is difficult, often relying on immunodiagnostic methods which utilize crude antigens. New immunodiagnostic methods based on recombinant proteins are being developed, and ideally these methods would be made available worldwide. Identification of diagnostic targets, as well as studies on the biology of the parasite, are limited by a lack of molecular information on Angiostrongylus spp. available in databases. In this study we present data collected from DNA random high-throughput sequencing together with proteomic analyses and a cDNA walking methodology to identify and obtain the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of unknown immunoreactive proteins. 28 080 putative ORFs were obtained, of which 3371 had homology to other deposited protein sequences. Using the A. cantonensis genomic sequences, 156 putative ORFs, matching peptide sequences obtained from previous proteomic studies, were considered novel, with no homology to existing sequences. Full-length coding sequences of eight antigenic target proteins were obtained. In this study we generated not only the complete nucleotide sequences of the antigenic protein targets but also a large amount of genomic data which may help facilitate future genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic or metabolomic studies on Angiostrongylus.
Human population is a predictor of mammal extinction risk, an indicator of conservation conflict and habitat conversion, and is thus associated with the threats to primate species. Priority areas that represent endemic primates in Atlantic Forest were identified where all counties had the same cost or where the costs of counties varied according to human population size (HPS); networks for both approaches consisted of nine counties. In the networks without human constraint, the average HPS was not higher than expected by chance alone. In the approach with human population constraint, HPS was not lower than the average of the null distribution. Although it is possible to minimize human conservation conflict, available occurrence data of endemic primates seems to be related to highly populated areas. The sum of HPS is greater in counties with some occurrence data than expected by chance. Conservation conflicts in the Atlantic Forest will continue to exist once this is the Brazilian most populous region, and data availability is directly related to counties' HPS. Field surveys are necessary to minimize Wallacean shortfall and efforts must be made to maintain the few natural areas remaining in this biome to promote the conservation of endemic primates and other biodiversity elements.
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism in mammals. It has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region. This enzyme has already been described in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and the ovaries of females appeared to be the major site of GSK-3 transcription. The treatment with GSK-3 specific inhibitor (alsterpaullone, bromo-indirubin-oxime 6 and indirubin-3-oxime) caused a reduction in oviposition and egg hatching in completely engorged female ticks. The effect was more pronounced in partially engorged females when alsterpaullone was administrated by artificial capillary feeding. Moreover, GSK-3 gene silencing by RNAi in partially engorged females reduced significantly both oviposition and hatching. The study of tick embryogenesis and proteins that participate in this process has been suggested as an important means for the development of novel strategies for parasite control. GSK-3 is an essential protein involved in embryonic processes and for this reason it has already been suggested as a possible antigen candidate for tick control.
To prospectively evaluate growth parameters assessed by weight and length in infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and followed from birth to 18 months.
A cohort consisting of ninety-seven uninfected and forty-two infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers enrolled from 1995 to 2004, and admitted during their first 3 months of life at a referral Pediatric AIDS Clinic in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Infants were followed until 18 months of age. Data were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression models for weight and length fitted by restricted maximum likelihood.
Infected infants contributed to 466 weight and 411 recumbent length measurements. Uninfected infants provided 924 weight and 907 length measurements. Mean birth weight and length were similar in both groups, 3·1 (sd 0·4) and 3·0 (sd 0·5) kg, and 48·7 (sd 1·4) and 48·8 (sd 2·9) cm for uninfected and infected infants, respectively. However, HIV-1 infection had an early impact in growth impairment: at 6 months of age, HIV-infected children were 1 kg lighter and 2 cm shorter than the uninfected.
Growth faltering in weight, but not length, in HIV-infected children in Brazil is more marked than that reported in a European cohort, probably reflecting background nutritional deficiencies and concomitant infections. In these settings, early and aggressive nutritional management in HIV-1-infected infants should be a priority intervention associated with the antiretroviral therapy.
In mammals it is well known the role of the elastic fibres in the lung development and its fundamental importance in the process of distending and recoil of the organ as a whole. The bird's lungs are compact and virtually non-expansible.
After morphological studies on elastic fibres distribution and quantification by image analysis we carried out a study on biochemical methods to quantify elastin in the avian lung, using domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) as an experimental model. We made use of two analytical methods for the elastin determination in these animal lungs from the 14th day of hatching until the 42nd day after hatchling.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are important modulators of normal lung development and harmful mediators of lung damage. Several studies support the role for an imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs homeostasis in the pathogenesis of paediatric lung failure. It was verified that MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio increases in the broncho-alveolar lavage of patients with bronchopulmonary dyspasia (BPD). Maternal administration of vitamin A, once the period of retinoid-induced teratogenesis is over, results in an enhancement of lung foetal organogenesis, an increase in the lung's elastic fibres, and an increase in VEGF pulmonary and plasma levels.