To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders.
In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the associations between PEs and GMCs with various adjustments.
After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders, temporally prior PEs were significantly associated with subsequent onset of 8/12 GMCs (arthritis, back or neck pain, frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and peptic ulcer) with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.5] to 1.9 (95% CI 1.4–2.4). In contrast, only three GMCs (frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain and asthma) were significantly associated with subsequent onset of PEs after adjustment for comorbid GMCs and mental disorders, with ORs ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9) to 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4).
PEs were associated with the subsequent onset of a wide range of GMCs, independent of comorbid mental disorders. There were also associations between some medical conditions (particularly those involving chronic pain) and subsequent PEs. Although these findings will need to be confirmed in prospective studies, clinicians should be aware that psychotic symptoms may be risk markers for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Whether PEs are causal risk factors will require further research.
A new three-dimensional finite-element model of the steady-state dynamics of temperate glaciers has been developed and applied to Johnsons Glacier, Livingston Island, Antarctica, with the aim of determining the velocity and stress fields for the present glacier configuration. It solves the full Stokes system of differential equations without recourse to simplifications such as those involved in the shallow-ice approximation. Rather high values of the stiffness parameter B (∼0.19–0.23MPaa1/3) are needed to match the observed ice surface velocities, although these results do not differ much from those found by other authors for temperate glaciers. Best-fit values of the coefficient k in the sliding law (*2.2–2.7 x 103m a–1MPa–2) are also of the same order of magnitude as those found by other authors. The results for velocities are satisfactory, though locally there exist significant discrepancies between computed and observed ice surface velocities, particularly for the vertical ones. This could be due to failures in the sliding law (in particular, the lack of information on water pressure), the use of an artificial down-edge boundary condition and the fact that bed deformation is not considered. For the whole glacier system, the driving stress is largely balanced by the basal drag (80% of the driving stress). Longitudinal stress gradients are only important in the divide areas and near the glacier terminus, while lateral drag is only important at both sides of the terminal zone.
Calving from tidewater glaciers and ice shelves accounts for around half the mass loss from both polar ice sheets, yet the process is not well represented in prognostic models of ice dynamics. Benn and others proposed a calving criterion appropriate for both grounded and floating glacier tongues or ice shelves, based on the penetration depth of transverse crevasses near the calving front, computed using Nye’s formula. The criterion is readily incorporated into glacier and ice-sheet models, but has not been fully validated with observations. We apply a three-dimensional extension of Benn and others’ criterion, incorporated into a full-Stokes model of glacier dynamics, to estimate the current position of the calving front of Johnsons Glacier, Antarctica. We find that two improvements to the original model are necessary to accurately reproduce the observed calving front: (1) computation of the tensile deviatoric stress opening the crevasse using the full-stress solution and (2) consideration of such a tensile stress as a function of depth. Our modelling results also suggest that Johnsons Glacier has a polythermal structure, rather than the temperate structure suggested by earlier studies.
We present a set of Molecular Dynamics simulations of the axial elongation of gold nanowires, and the compression of silver decahedral nanowires by a carbon AFM tip. We used Sutton and Chen multibody potentials to describe the metallic interactions, a Tersoff potential to simulate the carbon-carbon interactions, and a 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential to describe the metal-carbon interactions. In the elongation simulations, gold nanowires were subjected to strain at several rates, and we concentrated our attention in the specific case of a wire with an atomistic arrangement based on the intercalation of icosahedral motifs forming a Boerdijk-Coxeter (BCB) spiral, and compare it against results of nanowires with fcc structure and (001), (011), and (111) orientations. We found that the BCB nanowire is more resistant to breakage than the fcc nanowires. In the simulations of lateral compression, we made a strain analysis of the trajectories, finding that when a gold decahedral nanowire is compressed by the AFM tip in a direction parallel to a (100) face, the plastic deformation regime is considerably larger than in the case of compression exerted in a direction parallel to a twin plane, where the fracture of the wire comes almost immediately after the elastic range ends. The strain distribution and elastic response in the compression of nanoparticles with different geometries is also discussed.
To prospectively assess the associations between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish intakes and risk of stroke in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain).
Fish intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between the intakes of lean fish, fatty fish and total fish and stroke risk. Models were run separately for men and women.
Five Spanish regions (Asturias, San Sebastian, Navarra, Granada and Murcia).
Individuals (n 41 020; 15 490 men and 25 530 women) aged 20–69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2008 (December 2006 in the case of Asturias). Only participants with definite incident stroke were considered as cases.
During a mean follow-up of 13·8 years, 674 strokes were identified and subsequently validated by record linkage with hospital discharge databases, primary-care records and regional mortality registries, comprising 531 ischaemic, seventy-nine haemorrhagic, forty-two subarachnoid and twenty-two unspecific strokes. After multiple adjustments, no significant associations were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish consumption and the risk of stroke in men or women. In men, results revealed a non-significant trend towards an inverse association between lean fish (hazard ratio=0·84; 95 % CI 0·55, 1·29, Ptrend=0·06) and total fish consumption (hazard ratio=0·77; 95 % CI 0·51, 1·16, Ptrend=0·06) and risk of total stroke.
In the EPIC-Spain cohort, no association was found between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish consumption and risk of stroke.
This study aims to examine the prevalence and characteristics of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse. It also examines whether other non-abuse types of childhood adversities related to maladaptive family functioning and separations during childhood can be used as markers for the presence of childhood abuse. Participants (N = 237) were women at 2–3 days after delivery that completed the Spanish-validated version of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report (ETI-SR; Bremner, Bolus, & Mayer, 2007; Plaza et al., 2011), designed to assess the presence of childhood adversities. Results show that 29% of the women had experienced some type of childhood abuse, and 10% more than one type. Logistic regression analyses indicate that childhood parental death is a risk marker for childhood emotional abuse (OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.327–10.755; p <.013), childhood parental substance abuse is a risk marker for childhood sexual (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.480–9.303; p < .005) and physical abuse (OR: 2.610; 95% CI: 1.000–6.812; p < .05) and that childhood family mental illness is a risk marker for childhood emotional (OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.175–7.441; p < .021) and sexual abuse (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.168–5.580; p < .019). The high prevalence of childhood abuse indicates a need for assessment during the perinatal period. Screening for childhood family mental illness, parental substance abuse, and parental death - all identified risk factors for reporting childhood abuse - can help to identify women that should be assessed specifically regarding abuse.
Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P < 0·001)) and in virgin olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events. This emphasises the need to conserve the traditional culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden.
The majority of the literature on high-growth firms focuses on two main aspects: growth factors and rates of growth, but little information exists on how SMEs grow. Past research has implicitly considered high-growth firms as a homogeneous category of businesses, however, in reality, they use different forms of growth: domestic and international geographical expansion, the launch of new related and unrelated products, product improvement, client retention and the acquisition of new clients. This work attempts to identify how high-growth SMEs benefit from different combinations of forms of growth to perform successfully. A sample of 89 high-growth SMEs was selected – with an annual growth rate of more than 10% over a 5-year period – and, by means of a cluster analysis, we found four significantly different combinations of forms of growth. To externally test the robustness of those combinations, a group of demographic variables was considered (size, age, sector), as well as a set of variables related to the growth strategy (personnel involvement, the extent to which growth is a priority, perceived growth with respect to competitors), which support the existence of significant differences between the groups.
The luminescent properties of porous silicon (PSi) films in the visible region were used to improve the photoresponse of PSi/Si-wafer and PSi/Si p-n junctions UV detector prototypes in the region below 500nm. A luminescent PSi overlayer was formed on top of the Si wafers and p-n junctions by electrochemical anodization. These overlayers have emission spectra peaking close to 690nm. In the case of the PSi/Si wafer, the PSi film was produced with a high optical transparency above 600nm and highly absorbent below this value. With such characteristics, the incident UV radiation is partially absorbed and converted into visible radiation that can be highly transmitted through the PSi film and efficiently absorbed by the wafer or the junction. The UV measurements show enhancement of the photoresponse at 366nm as compared with control prototypes without PSi. Details about the enhancement process are discussed.
Epidemiological studies show that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) increases longevity; however, few studies are restricted to Mediterranean populations or explore the effect of a MD pattern that directly incorporates olive oil. Therefore the relationship between adherence to the MD and mortality was studied within the the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The EPIC-Spain analysis included 40 622 participants (37·7 % males) aged 29–69 years who were recruited from five Spanish regions in 1992–1996. During a mean follow-up of 13·4 years, 1855 deaths were documented: 913 from cancer, 399 from CVD, 425 from other causes and 118 from unknown causes of death. Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed according to the level of adherence to a relative MD (rMED) score, measured using an 18-unit scale incorporating nine selected dietary components. A high compared with a low rMED score was associated with a significant reduction in mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 0·79; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·91), from CVD (HR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·89), but not from overall cancer (HR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·75, 1·12). A 2-unit increase in rMED score was associated with a 6 % (P < 0·001) decreased risk of all-cause mortality. A high olive oil intake and moderate alcohol consumption contributed most to this association. In this Spanish cohort, following an olive oil-rich MD was related to a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, and reduced the risk of mortality from CVD. These results support the important role that the MD pattern has on reducing mortality in Mediterranean countries.
The maximum photoresponse of a normal silicon photodetector, that uses a p-n junction as the active zone, is obtained when the incident radiation wavelength is around 750nm. This response diminishes significantly when the incident radiation is near or in the UV region. Meanwhile, nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films with high transparency above 650nm and high absorbance in the UV can be prepared. By quantum confinement effects, a fraction of this absorbed UV energy is re-emitted as visible photons that can be used by the junction. We study the enhancement of the UV-photoresponse of two silicon detector prototypes with a silicon p-n junction active zone and with a photoluminescent nc-Si overlayer. One prototype is made with a porous silicon/n-type silicon/p-type silicon/p++-silicon/metal configuration and the other with an Eu-doped Si-SiO2 overlayer instead of the porous silicon one. The comparison between both prototypes and the control is presented and discussed stressing on the enhancement effect introduced by the photoluminescent overlayers, stability and reproducibility.
Patterned technological behaviors in the production and use of burnt-lime products can be characterized using optical microscopy and image analysis of pétrographie thin-sections to determine the texture (supplemented by X-ray diffraction analysis). Variations in technological styles have been identified in 21 samples from the ancient Maya site of Nakbe, Petén, Guatemala dating to the Middle Preclassic (1,000 B. C. - 300 B. C.) and Late Preclassic (300 B. C. - 150 A. D.) periods. Middle Preclassic floors exhibit a chaotic texture with a highly random aggregate particle size. Late Preclassic modeled stucco or painted fragments have a well-sorted texture with a low acid-insoluble content (<2%). Load -bearing mortar dating from the early Late Preclassic has a matrix with a high acid insoluble content (>15%), the major phases being quartz (-10%) and clays (∼5%). The variations correlate both with the time of occurrence and the function of the end-product. These issues of construction methods and levels of technology contribute data to aid our understanding of cultural development in this area at a critical time when the Maya were formulating power structures.
Spatial ordering of InAs quantum dots was attained by using misfit dislocations generated in a metastable InGaAs layer by means of thermal annealing. Influence of quantum dot positional ordering and dot proximity to dislocation arrays on carrier dynamics was studied by timeresolved photoluminescence. Substantially narrower inhomogeneous broadening from the ordered quantum dots was observed. Excitation intensity dependence of the photoluminescence intensity and carrier lifetime indicates stronger influence of nonradiative recombination for the ordered quantum dot structures. Numerical simulations allow estimating electron and hole capture rates from the quantum dots to traps located either at the quantum dot interfaces or in the vicinity of the quantum dots.
The objective of this study is to describe the relationships between grandchildren and their favourite grandparents, by studying the socialization styles used by latter and the shared activities undertaken. The participants were 360 children between 10 and 12 years old, who completed the grandparent-grandchild relationship questionnaire of Rico, Serra and Viguer (2001) and the socialization questionnaire of Rey and Ruiz (1990). The results demonstrate the importance of gender and family line in the selection of the favourite grandparent, differences being shown in the types of shared activities and in socialization styles. It is concluded that in the majority of cases the profile of the favourite grandparent is the maternal grandmother, retired or a house wife, aged between 60-70, who lives in the same city as his/her grandchild, and who has contact with them several times a week. Furthermore, favourite grandparents get more involved with granddaughters than with grandsons, both in support and care activities and in cultural-recreational activities, and they primarily employ a democratic style. However, there are differences depending on the gender of the grandchild, with democratic principles being used more with girls and authoritarian ones with boys.
The white shark is known to inhabit the Gulf of California, but few published records exist for the most frequent localities of captures or sightings of this protected and relatively uncommon shark in Gulf waters. We have compiled and here report 38 records of white shark captures and reliable sightings for the Gulf. Records include individuals caught as by-catch by shrimp trawlers and gill-nets, and several sightings by divers or at fishing camps with corroborating photographs or sets of jaws (teeth). The main locations of occurrence were El Golfo de Santa Clara (13 records), followed by Santa Rosalía (4), and San Pedro Mártir and San Pedro Nolasco Islands (3 each). Presence of juveniles (<300 cm total length) was highest from January to May (10 records); whereas in July and October only two juveniles were recorded. Adults were more common from December to May (8 records); whereas from June to October there were fewer (5). Human induced threats and conservation of the white shark in the Mexican Pacific are briefly discussed.
This study considers the complex dynamics of work motivation. Forty-eight employees completed a work-motivation diary several times per day over a period of four weeks. The obtained time series were analysed using different methodologies derived from chaos theory (i.e. recurrence plots, Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension and surrogate data). Results showed chaotic dynamics in 75% of cases. The findings confirm the universality of chaotic behavior within human behavior, challenge some of the underlying assumptions on which work motivation theories are based, and suggest that chaos theory may offer useful and relevant information on how this process is managed within organizations.
Aim – To assess the relationship between mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the general population, and to map GHQ-12 as a screening test for population psychological distress to a generic health state measure (EQ-5D) in order to estimate health state values and allow deriving quality-adjusted life years. Methods – Relationship between mental health and HRQL was examined from the 2004 Canary Islands’ Health Survey. Participants were classified as probable psychiatric cases according to GHQ-12. HRQL was measured by the EQ-5D index. Multivariate lineal regression analysis was used to examine the association between mental health and HRQL adjusting by socio-demographic variables and comorbidities. A multivariate regression model was built from EQ-5D to estimate health states values using GHQ-12 as exposure. Results – EQ-5D index scores decreased as the GHQ-12 scores increased. Clinical and socio-demographic factors influenced HRQL without changing the overall trend for this negative relationship. The regression equation explained 43% of the variance. For estimation of utility scores, the model showed a high predictive capacity, with a mean forecast errors of 16%. Conclusions – HRQL progressively decreased when the probability of being a psychiatric case increased. Findings enable health state values to be derived from GHQ-12 scores for populations where utilities has not or cannot be measured directly.
Declaration of Interest: Authors declare no conflicts of interest. This work was supported by the Quality Plan for the National Health Service (Spanish Ministry of Health and Social Policy).