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To identify sex-specific cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) for the Chilean adult population.
MetS was defined as the presence of at least two out of four of the following criteria: TAG ≥1·7 mmol/l; HDL-cholesterol: <1·3 mmol/l in women and <1·0 mmol/l in men; systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg; and fasting glucose ≥ 5·6 mmol/l or current treatment for diabetes. The receiver operating characteristics curve and the AUC were computed to derive the specificity and sensitivity using bootstrapping (10 000 iterations restricted to have at least between 40 and 60 % of the original population). The optimal cut-off point for the Chilean population was computed by sex.
A representative sample of the Chilean population aged ≥15 years.
8182 participants (60 % women) from the three available Chilean National Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2009–2010 and 2016–2017.
WC had a good predictive ability for MetS (AUC for men 0·74 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·76); AUC for women 0·71 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·73)). The optimal cut-off points for WC, in the definition of MetS, were 92·3 cm (95 % CI 90·5, 94·4) and 87·6 cm (95 % CI 85·8, 92·1) for men and women, respectively.
The mentioned cut-off points should be used for WC in the definition of MetS in Chile. As a result, the current recommendation (WHO/International Diabetes Federation) for WC, in the identification of MetS, is not supported by these findings in a representative sample of the Chilean adult population.
The Paleolithic diet (PaleoDiet) is an allegedly healthy dietary pattern inspired by the consumption of wild foods and animals assumed to be consumed in the Paleolithic era. Despite gaining popularity in the media, different operational definitions of this Paleolithic nutritional intake have been used in research. Our hypothesis is that specific components used to define the PaleoDiet may modulate the association of this diet with several health outcomes. We comprehensively reviewed currently applied PaleoDiet scores and suggested a new score based on the food composition of current PaleoDiet definitions and the theoretical food content of a staple dietary pattern in the Paleolithic age. In a PubMed search up to December 2019, fourteen different PaleoDiet definitions were found. We observed some common components of the PaleoDiet among these definitions although we also found high heterogeneity in the list of specific foods that should be encouraged or banned within the PaleoDiet. Most studies suggest that the PaleoDiet may have beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, CVD and hyperlipidaemias) but the level of evidence is still weak because of the limited number of studies with a large sample size, hard outcomes instead of surrogate outcomes and long-term follow-up. Finally, we propose a new PaleoDiet score composed of eleven food items, based on a high consumption of fruits, nuts, vegetables, fish, eggs and unprocessed meats (lean meats); and a minimum content of dairy products, grains and cereals, and legumes and practical absence of processed (or ultra-processed) foods or culinary ingredients.
Infertility is defined as a failure of spontaneous conception after one year of regular sexual intercourse in the absence of contraceptive measures . This entity represents a rising medical complaint since one out of eight couples find it difficult to conceive a child for the first time, and up to one in six find it difficult to conceive twice. Currently, 70 million couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility worldwide, accounting for an estimated overall prevalence of 15% .
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
Chile has experienced significant improvements in its economy; thus, a secular trend in height has been observed in its population. Gender equality has also improved hand in hand with active policies addressing the gender gap in several dimensions (work, education, health) and overall economic improvement. This study examined changes in sexual height dimorphism in four samples of Chilean male and female working-age subjects and attempted to establish associations with gender equality and welfare. Sexual height dimorphism was calculated and compared with gender equality and overall welfare indicators between 1955 and 1995. Sexual height dimorphism reduction was seen to be strongly associated with greater gender equality and some general welfare indicators, such as the infant mortality rate. Gross domestic product per capita was not associated with sexual height dimorphism, but it showed significant associations with gender equality indicators. Overall, the gender gap has been reduced in Chile, which can be observed through improvements in gender equality indicators and a reduction in height dimorphism, mainly in areas associated with women’s health. However, gender equality is still far behind in terms of female labour participation and women in political power, which require attention and further improvements.
A secular trend in body height has been experienced in many nations and populations, hypothesized to be the result of better living conditions. Educational level has been shown to be closely associated with body height. This study examined the changes in body height and popliteal height in a group of adult Chilean male workers by age cohort and the relationship of these with educational level. The body heights and popliteal heights of 1404 male workers from the Valparaíso and Metropolitan regions of Chile were measured in 2016. The sample was grouped by level of education (primary, secondary, technical and university) and age (21–30, 31–40 and 41–50 years). Robust ANOVA and post-hoc analyses using a one-step modified M-estimation of location were conducted based on bootstrap resampling. Both body height and popliteal height increased from the older to the younger age cohort. The largest increase was from the 41–50 to the 21–30 group, with a 1.1% increase in body height and 1.7% increase in popliteal height. When educational level was introduced into the analysis there was a marked increase in both body height and popliteal height for each cohort, but only in primary- and secondary-educated workers. Despite showing an overall increase in body height and popliteal height, younger workers with the highest levels of education showed fewer differences between them than did older workers with less education. The differences were larger in the older than in the younger cohorts. Similarly, this trend was less clear in workers with higher levels of education (technical and university), probably because of a dilution effect caused by increased access to higher education by workers in the lower income quintiles.
The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
Cancer during pregnancy has an incidence of 1/1,000, and when diagnosed, the most common ones are breast cancer (1/10,000), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (1/6,000), and head and neck cancer (1/10,000). If a diagnosis is made during pregnancy, the treatment cannot wait until delivery, and there is concern about the effects that radiotherapy may have on the foetus. The multidisciplinary group has to assess and ethically make decisions with regard to the mother and foetus.
A 35-year-old female, a carrier of Behcet’s disease, underwent 5 years of treatment with hydroxychloroquine, prednisone and low-molecular-weight heparin (the patient being a carrier of Behcet’s disease, there is a high risk for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx with an HR of 2·11, so the cancer could be related to the tonsil). The patient’s oncological situation started on December 2017 with a volume increase in preauricular, parotid and right mandibular angle, with a progressive growth. At this time, the foetus was of 17·5 weeks of gestation. An oral cavity tumour that invaded the right retromolar triangle was observed, and upon biopsy, a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed.
Radiotherapy treatment was started at 22 weeks of gestation; intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was planned with a dose of 69·96 Gy to the primary tumour and 59·4 Gy to ganglion levels II, III and IV, bilaterally in 33 fractions. At fraction 27 a significant decrease in tumour volume was noted, so adaptive radiotherapy was performed to complete the treatment. Currently the patient has no clinical evidence of tumour pathology.
The risk of radiation exposure in pregnant women (after 20 weeks of gestation), being treated for cancers of the tonsil, reaching the foetus is minimal, with a reduced risk of a few or no effects.
Radiotherapy in tonsil cancer has been shown to be effective in combination with chemotherapy for local control of the disease. In the case of this pregnant patient, radiotherapy, as the only modality, provided local control and little exposure of radiation to the foetus.
The demand for rehabilitation services has increased in recent years due to population aging. Due to the limitations of therapist’s time and healthcare resources, robot-assisted rehabilitation is becoming an appealing, powerful, and economical solution. In this paper, we propose a solution that combines Learning from Demonstration (LfD) and robotic rehabilitation to save the therapist’s time and reduce the therapy costs when the therapy involves periodic or semi-periodic motions.We begin by modeling the therapist’s behavior (a periodic or semi-periodic motion) using a Fourier Series (FS). Later, when the therapist is no longer involved, the system reproduces the learned behavior modeled by the FS using a robot. A second goal is to combine the above with Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Gaussian Mixture Regression (GMR) to obtain a more flexible and generalizable reproduction of the therapist’s behavior. This algorithm allows learning and imitating repetitive movement tasks. Our experimental results show the application of these algorithms to repetitive motion task.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients on the target coverage when using 6 MV beams-VMAT therapy and to propose strategies that allow us to evaluate the dose or correct it by normalization without having to perform a new simulation.
Methods and materials:
Ten patients of high-risk prostate cancer were chosen for the study. All test plans were delivered using the same isocenter and monitor units as the original plan and compared against the original unedited plan. The expansion and contraction of body contours due to size changes was mimicked by increasing and decreasing the body contour with depths of −2, −1·5, …, 1·5, 2 cm, in the anterior, and both lateral directions of the patient. A total of 90 plans were evaluated, 9 for each patient. Dose-volume histogram statistics were extracted from each plan and normalized to prescription dose.
Weight changes resulted in considerable dose modifications to the target and critical structures. Plans were found to be varied with 2·9% ± 0·3% per cm SSD change for VMAT treatment with a correlation index close to one. Therefore, doses variations were linear to the changes of depth. Gamma index evaluation was performed for the 10 renormalized plans. All of them passed criteria of 3%/3 mm in at least 98.2% of points. Eight of them passed criteria in 99% points. Gamma index 4%/4 mm passed 100% points in all patients for the chosen region of interest.
The dosimetry estimation presented in this study shows important data for the radiation oncology staff to justify whether a CT rescan is necessary or not when a patient experiences weight changes during treatment. Based on the results of our study, discrepancies between real dose and planned dose were >5% for 1·7 cm of difference in external contour in the anterior and both lateral directions of the patient.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
The present commentary contains a clear and simple guide designed to identify ultra-processed foods. It responds to the growing interest in ultra-processed foods among policy makers, academic researchers, health professionals, journalists and consumers concerned to devise policies, investigate dietary patterns, advise people, prepare media coverage, and when buying food and checking labels in shops or at home. Ultra-processed foods are defined within the NOVA classification system, which groups foods according to the extent and purpose of industrial processing. Processes enabling the manufacture of ultra-processed foods include the fractioning of whole foods into substances, chemical modifications of these substances, assembly of unmodified and modified food substances, frequent use of cosmetic additives and sophisticated packaging. Processes and ingredients used to manufacture ultra-processed foods are designed to create highly profitable (low-cost ingredients, long shelf-life, emphatic branding), convenient (ready-to-consume), hyper-palatable products liable to displace all other NOVA food groups, notably unprocessed or minimally processed foods. A practical way to identify an ultra-processed product is to check to see if its list of ingredients contains at least one item characteristic of the NOVA ultra-processed food group, which is to say, either food substances never or rarely used in kitchens (such as high-fructose corn syrup, hydrogenated or interesterified oils, and hydrolysed proteins), or classes of additives designed to make the final product palatable or more appealing (such as flavours, flavour enhancers, colours, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, sweeteners, thickeners, and anti-foaming, bulking, carbonating, foaming, gelling and glazing agents).
The work focuses on the analysis of electrochemical corrosion in synthetic salt medium of the TiC/Ni-20Cr composite through the polarization curve technique at four exposure times (0, 6, 12 and 24 h). The composite was prepared by liquid infiltration of the liquid alloy into a porous body of TiC. It was found a continuous and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing material in the interconnected matrix, having a residual porosity of 6.49 vol.%. According to the electrochemical results, in both samples the highest corrosion rate (CR) was obtained at 12 h exposure due to the rupture of the film of the corrosion products, allowing the interaction of chloride ions with the metal surface. The CR of the composite was slightly higher than that of the alloy at all exposure times, so that the presence of the reinforcing particles and the residual porosity reduce the corrosion resistance of the matrix in the composite. The mechanism of corrosion observed in the alloy and the composite was by pitting, however, the composite also presents crevice corrosion by a differential aeration cell mechanism formed between the metal matrix and the ceramic reinforcement, affected by the residual porosity as confirmed by electron microscopy examination.
The work presents an electrochemical study of the corrosion behaviour of two TiC/Cu-Ni metal matrix composites with a content of 10 and 20 wt.% Ni immersed in synthetic seawater. The composites were synthesized by a capillary infiltration technique, obtaining dense materials TiC/Cu-10Ni and TiC/Cu-20 Ni with a residual porosity of 1.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The corrosion rate (CR) was evaluated from the techniques of polarization curves (PC), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical measurements were carried out under static conditions, ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure at 24 hours exposure in the electrolytic medium. The corrosion rate is affected by the Ni content in the matrix, with less corrosion in the composite with a higher Ni content. The higher content of Ni in the Cu-Ni alloy provides higher passivation and stability to the corrosion products film that are absorbed on the composite surface. Microscopic examination (SEM) showed a characteristic morphology of a corrosion mechanism of the localized type (pits and crevices) generated by a differential aeration, where the TiC/Cu-10Ni composite showed greater degradation.
A method for the fabrication of interconnected ceramic sponges was used in the present work, designed by using a combination of two different, aqueous gel casting and sacrificial template, using aluminum nitride powder (99.97%) with a mean size of 2.4 micrometers. Two types of sponges were made by using two different monomers, acrylamide and methacrylamide, the resultants sponges have 60% of porosity after being sintered and pyrolyzed at temperature of 1673 K using an inert atmosphere of argon for 1 h. The hydrolysis evolution of this ceramic powder during the gelcasting process was studied by measuring the pH during the stirring time, the microstructure changes during the time of exposure were observed in a SEM. XRD were made to study the present phases after the gel was eliminated by thermal treatment at 873 K using an oxidizing atmosphere, observing a formation of up to 4 %wt. of cubic alumina phase which was made after the hydrolysis products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the changes in the ceramic powder.
Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from red foxes differed from S. lupi by the presence of six triangular teeth-like buccal capsule structures, which are absent in the latter. Additionally, in female worms from red foxes, the distance of the vulva opening to the anterior end and the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus lengths were larger than those of S. lupi (P < 0.006). In males, the lengths of the whole oesophagus and glandular part, the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus and the comparison of the oesophagus to the total body length were smaller in S. lupi (all P < 0.044). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that S. lupi and the red foxes spirurid represent monophyletic sister groups with pairwise nucleotide distances of 9.2 and 0.2% in the cytochrome oxidase 1 and 18S genes, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the nematodes from red foxes were considered to belong to a separate species, for which the name Spirocerca vulpis sp. nov. is proposed.
Ultra-processed foods provide 58 % of energy intake and 89 % of added sugars in the American diet. Nevertheless, the association between ultra-processed foods and excess weight has not been investigated in a US sample. The present investigation therefore aims to examine the association between ultra-processed foods and excess weight in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric and dietary data from 15 977 adults (20–64 years) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2014. Dietary data were collected by 24-h recall. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Foods were classified as ultra-processed/non-ultra-processed according to the NOVA classification. Multivariable linear and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food consumption (% energy) and BMI, WC and odds of BMI≥25 kg/m2, BMI≥30 kg/m2 and abdominal obesity (men: WC≥102 cm, women: WC≥88 cm). Prevalence of BMI≥25 kg/m2, BMI≥30 kg/m2 and abdominal obesity was 69·2, 36·1 and 53·0 %, respectively. Consuming ≥74·2 v. ≤36·5 % of total energy from ultra-processed foods was associated with 1·61 units higher BMI (95 % CI 1·11, 2·10), 4·07 cm greater WC (95 % CI 2·94, 5·19) and 48, 53 and 62 % higher odds of BMI≥25 kg/m2, BMI≥30 kg/m2 and abdominal obesity, respectively (OR 1·48; 95 % CI 1·25, 1·76; OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·81; OR 1·62; 95 % CI 1·39, 1·89, respectively; Pfor trend<0·001 for all). A significant interaction between being female and ultra-processed food consumption was found for BMI (F4,79=4·89, P=0·002), WC (F4,79=3·71, P=0·008) and BMI≥25 kg/m2 (F4,79=5·35, P<0·001). As the first study in a US population, our findings support that higher consumption of ultra-processed food is associated with excess weight, and that the association is more pronounced among women.
Due to its excellent optical properties, gold nanomaterials with anisotropic morphology are playing an important role in biomedical applications, specifically in the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) technique for biological assays. In this work, we verified the behavior of the star shape nanoparticle peaks obtained by chemical synthesis (precursor reactant: HAuCl4, cationic surfactant: CTAB) and whose peaks were formed from the different concentrations of gold seeds (55, 65, 75 and 85 ul) which were added to the total solution (5.275 ml). The shape and size of the nanoparticles was verified with a Hitachi S-5500 microscope with a BF & DF SEM / STEM detector, and for the diameter distribution (hydrodynamic) was carried out by the dynamic light distribution technique with a Malvern DLS system Zetasizer Nano ZS. Particle sizes (peak-to-peak considering) were obtained with variations from 107 to 166 nm. The results suggest adding 75 ul of gold seeds to obtain uniform nanostars with well defined peaks. These gold nano-stars could be applied for identification of specific membrane markers for the study of different types of cancer by the SERS technique.
The effects of Ag nanoparticles on microorganisms and the antimicrobial mechanism has recently been validated for different microbiological strains, as well as their cytotoxic effect in in vitro cellular models. In this work we report the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using the extract of Eichhornia crassipes as reducing agent, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity with Escherichia coli. The morphology, size and inhibition properties of the nanoparticles as a function of the reduction time in the chemical synthesis were analyzed. The characterization was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles with average diameters of 40 nm ± 10 nm were obtained and their antimicrobial activity with higher inhibition in Escherichia coli was recorded with the nanoparticle samples obtained at 120 min. These results suggest that Ag nanoparticles can be used as effective growth inhibitors in various microorganisms, making them applicable to various medical devices and antimicrobial control systems by modifying their concentration.